Nokia Wiki
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'''Nokia Corporation''' ({{pron-en|ˈnɔkiɑ}}) ({{OMX|HEX24311|NOK1V}}, {{nyse|NOK}}, {{FWB|NOA3}}) is a [[Finland|Finnish]] [[Multinational corporation|multinational]] communications corporation that is headquartered in [[Keilaniemi]], [[Espoo]], a city neighbouring Finland's capital [[Helsinki]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/About_Nokia/Sidebars_new_concept/Nokia_in_brief/InBriefJuly08.pdf|title=Nokia in brief (2007)|month=March|year=2008|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Nokia is engaged in the manufacturing of mobile devices and in converging Internet and communications industries, with over 123,000 employees in 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of [[Euro|EUR]] 41 [[1000000000 (number)|billion]] and operating profit of €1.2 billion as of 2009.<ref name="AR2009" /> It is the world's largest manufacturer of [[Mobile phone|mobile telephone]]s: its global device [[market share]] was about 39% in Q4 2009, up from 37% in Q4 2008 and 38% in Q3 2009, and its [[Technological convergence|converged device]] market share was about 40% in Q4, up from 35% in Q3 2009.<ref name="AR2009" /> Nokia produces mobile devices for every major [[market segment]] and [[Communications protocol|protocol]], including [[GSM]], [[Code division multiple access|CDMA]], and [[W-CDMA (UMTS)|W-CDMA]] ([[Universal Mobile Telecommunications System|UMTS]]). Nokia offers Internet services such as [[Application software|applications]], [[Mobile game|games]], [[music]], [[map]]s, [[Digital media|media]] and [[Message|messaging]] through its [[Ovi (Nokia)|Ovi]] platform. Nokia's subsidiary [[Nokia Siemens Networks]] produces [[telecommunications network]] equipment, solutions and services.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/global/AboutUs/Company/?languagecode=en|title=Company|publisher=Nokia Siemens Networks|accessdate=2009-07-14}}</ref> Nokia is also engaged in providing free digital map information and navigation services through its wholly-owned subsidiary [[Navteq]].<ref name="Navteq">{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136001?newsid=1157198|title=Nokia to acquire NAVTEQ|date=2007-10-01|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref>
Nokia sucks horse cock and is the worst company ever.
 
   
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Nokia has sites for [[research and development]], [[Manufacturing|manufacture]] and [[sales]] in many countries throughout the world. As of December 2009, Nokia had R&D presence in 16 countries and employed 37,020 people in research and development, representing approximately 30% of the group's total [[workforce]].<ref name="AR2009" /> The Nokia Research Center, founded in 1986, is Nokia's industrial research unit consisting of about 500 researchers, engineers and scientists.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/Press/twwln/press_kit/Nokia_Research_Center_Press_Backgrounder_October_2007.pdf|title=Nokia Research Center|month=October|year=2007|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://research.nokia.com/aboutus/index.html|title=About NRC – Nokia Research Center|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-17}}</ref> It has sites in seven countries: Finland, China, India, Kenya, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://research.nokia.com/locations/index.html|title=NRC Locations – Nokia Research Center|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-17}}</ref> Besides its research centers, in 2001 Nokia founded (and owns) [[Instituto Nokia de Tecnologia|INdT]] – Nokia Institute of Technology, a R&D institute located in Brazil.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.indt.org.br/|title=INdT – Instituto Nokia de Tecnologia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-17}}</ref> Nokia operates a total of 15 manufacturing facilities<ref name="FAQ">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/faq|title=Nokia – FAQ|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref> located at [[Espoo]], [[Oulu]] and [[Salo, Finland|Salo]], Finland; [[Manaus]], Brazil; [[Beijing]], [[Dongguan]] and [[Suzhou]], China; [[Farnborough, Hampshire|Farnborough]], England; [[Komárom]], Hungary; [[Chennai]], India; [[Reynosa, Tamaulipas|Reynosa]], Mexico; [[Jucu]], Romania and [[Masan]], South Korea.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4149133|title=Production units|month=June|year=2008|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref name="Romania">{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136001?newsid=1114420|title=Nokia to set up a new mobile device factory in Romania|date=2007-03-26|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Nokia's Design Department remains in [[Salo, Finland|Salo]], Finland.
Sincerely, Bruce Levorchick of Oyster Bay High School
 
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Age 53, ex gambler/pot smoker/child molester.
 
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Nokia is a [[Public limited company|public limited liability company]] listed on the [[Helsinki Stock Exchange|Helsinki]], [[Frankfurt Stock Exchange|Frankfurt]], and [[New York Stock Exchange|New York]] stock exchanges.<ref name="FAQ"/> Nokia plays a very large role in the [[economy of Finland]]; it is by far the largest [[List of Finnish companies|Finnish company]], accounting for about a third of the [[market capitalization]] of the Helsinki Stock Exchange (OMX Helsinki) as of 2007, a unique situation for an [[Developed country|industrialized country]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.taloussanomat.fi/porssi-ja-raha/2007/07/24/Ulkomaalaiset+valtaavat+p%F6rssiyhti%F6it%E4/200717658/103|title=Ulkomaalaiset valtaavat pörssiyhtiöitä|last=Kapanen|first=Ari|date=2007-07-24|work=Taloussanomat|language=Finnish|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> It is an important employer in Finland and several small companies have grown into large ones as its [[Business partner|partners]] and [[subcontractor]]s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.etla.fi/files/940_FES_01_1_nokia.pdf|title=The role of Nokia in the Finnish Economy|last=Ali-Yrkkö|first=Jyrki|year=2001|format=PDF|publisher=ETLA (The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy)|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref> Nokia increased Finland's [[Gross domestic product|GDP]] by more than 1.5% in 1999 alone. In 2004 Nokia's share of the Finnish GDP was 3.5% and accounted for almost a quarter of Finland's exports in 2003.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/technology/maney/2004-06-30-maney_x.htm|title=Unlike some celebrity marriages, Nokia-Finland union won't end soon|last=Maney|first=Kevin|date=2004-06-30|work=USA TODAY|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref>
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In recent years, [[Finns]] have consistently ranked Nokia as one of the best Finnish brands. In 2008, it was the 27th most respected brand among Finns, down from sixth place in 2007.<ref name="most-respected-brands">{{cite web|url=http://www.marmai.fi/uutiset/article140708.ece|title=Fiskars nousi Suomen ykkösbrändiksi|work=Markkinointi & Mainonta|date=2008-09-26|accessdate=2010-01-23|language=Finnish}}</ref> The Nokia [[brand]], valued at $34.9 billion, is listed as the fifth most valuable global brand in the [[Interbrand]]/''[[BusinessWeek]]'' Best Global Brands list of 2009 (first non-US company).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.interbrand.com/images/studies/-1_BGB2009_Magazine_Final.pdf|title=Best Global Brands 2009|date=2009-09-17|format=PDF|work=Interbrand|accessdate=2009-09-28}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://images.businessweek.com/ss/09/09/0917_global_brands/index.htm|title=Best Global Brands 2009|date=2009-09-17|work=Interbrand|publisher=BusinessWeek|accessdate=2009-09-28}}</ref> It is the number one brand in Asia (as of 2007)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.synovate.com/news/article/extra/20070824/Asia%27s%20Top%201000%20brands%20fact%20sheet.pdf|title=Asia's Top 1000 brands for 2007|date=2007-08-24|format=PDF|work=Synovate|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> and Europe (as of 2009),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eurobrand.cc/images/stories/eurobrand2009/eurobrand2009_single_brands.pdf|format=PDF|title=Eurobrand 2009|date=2009-11-03|work=European Brand Institute|accessdate=2010-02-10}}</ref> the 42nd most admirable company worldwide in [[Fortune (magazine)|Fortune]]'s World's Most Admired Companies list of 2009 (third in Network Communications, seventh non-US company),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/mostadmired/2009/index.html|title=World's Most Admired Companies 2009 – Top 50|date=2009-03-06|publisher=Fortune|accessdate=2009-03-06}}</ref> and the world's 85th largest company as measured by [[revenue]] in [[Fortune Global 500]] list of 2009, up from 88th the previous year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2009/full_list/|title=''Fortune Global 500'' 2009|date=2009-07-14|publisher=Fortune|accessdate=2009-07-14}}</ref> As of 2009, [[AMR Research]] ranks Nokia's global [[supply chain]] number six in the world.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amrresearch.com/supplychaintop25/|title=Supply Chain Top 25|date=2009-05-28|work=AMR Research|accessdate=2009-06-14}}</ref>
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==History==
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{{double image|left|Fredrik Idestam.png|115|Leo Mechelin (cropped).png|123|[[Fredrik Idestam]], founder of Nokia.|Statesman [[Leo Mechelin]], co-founder of Nokia.}}
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[[File:Nokia HQ.jpg|thumb|275px|The [[Nokia head office|Nokia House]], Nokia's head office located by the [[Gulf of Finland]] in [[Keilaniemi]], [[Espoo]], was constructed between 1995 and 1997. It is the workplace of more than 1,000 Nokia employees.<ref name="Towards Telecommunications">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/About_Nokia/Sidebars_new_concept/Broschures/TowardsTelecomms.pdf|title=Nokia – Towards Telecommunications|month=August|year=2000|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-06-05}}</ref>]]
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===Pre-telecommunications era===
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The predecessors of the modern Nokia were the Nokia Company (Nokia Aktiebolag), [[Nokian Footwear|Finnish Rubber Works Ltd]] (Suomen Gummitehdas Oy) and [[Kaapelitehdas|Finnish Cable Works Ltd]] (Suomen Kaapelitehdas Oy).<ref name="First century">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/nokias-first-century|title=Nokia – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref>
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Nokia's history starts in 1865 when mining engineer [[Fredrik Idestam]] established a [[Pulp mill|groundwood pulp mill]] on the banks of the [[Tammerkoski]] rapids in the town of [[Tampere]], in southwestern Finland, and started [[Pulp and paper industry|manufacturing paper]].<ref name="The birth of Nokia">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/nokias-first-century/the-birth-of-nokia|title=Nokia – The birth of Nokia – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref> In 1868, Idestam built a second mill near the town of [[Nokia, Finland|Nokia]], fifteen kilometres (nine miles) west of Tampere by the Nokianvirta river, which had better resources for [[hydropower]] production.<ref name="Idestam">{{cite web|url=http://www.kansallisbiografia.fi/english/?id=4296|title=Idestam, Fredrik (1838-1916)|last=Helen|first=Tapio|publisher=Biographical Centre of the Finnish Literature Society|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> In 1871, Idestam, with the help of his close friend statesman [[Leo Mechelin]], renamed and transformed his firm into a share company, thereby founding the Nokia Company, the name it is still known by today.<ref name="Idestam"/>
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The name of the town, Nokia, originated from the river which flowed through the town. The river itself, Nokianvirta, was named after the archaic Finnish word originally meaning a small, dark-furred animal that lived on the banks of the Nokianvirta river. In modern [[Finnish language|Finnish]], ''noki'' means [[soot]] and ''nokia'' is its [[Finnish grammar#Inflected plural|inflected plural]], although this form of the word is rarely if ever used. The old word, ''nois'' ([[Plural|pl.]] ''nokia'') or ''nokinäätä'' ("soot marten"), meant [[sable]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.students.tut.fi/~nipo/soopeli.html|title=Kuuluiko soopeli Suomen eläimistöön|language=Finnish|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref> After sable was hunted to extinction in Finland, the word was applied to any dark-furred animal of the genus ''[[Marten|Martes]]'', such as the [[European Pine Marten|pine marten]], which are found in the area to this day.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nds2.ir.nokia.com/EUROPE_NOKIA_COM_3/r2/aboutnokia/downloads/brochures/pdf/nokia_manor/NOKIA_MANOR.pdf|title=Nokia Manor's Seven Centuries|format=PDF|last=Ruonala|first=Katri-Mari|coauthors=Husa, Risto; Timgren, Karri|year=2000|work=Layout: Boström, Louise; Photos: Nokia’s photo archives, National Board of Antiquities, Ove Tammela|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref>
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Toward the end of the [[19th century]], Mechelin's wishes to expand into the [[electricity]] business were at first thwarted by Idestam's opposition. However, Idestam's retirement from the management of the company in 1896 allowed Mechelin to become the company's chairman (from 1898 until 1914) and sell most shareholders on his plans, thus realizing his vision.<ref name="Idestam"/> In 1902, Nokia added [[electricity generation]] to its business activities.<ref name="The birth of Nokia"/>
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====Industrial conglomerate====
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In 1898, Eduard Polón founded [[Nokian Footwear|Finnish Rubber Works]], manufacturer of [[galoshes]] and other rubber products, which later became Nokia's rubber business.<ref name="First century"/> At the beginning of the [[20th century]], Finnish Rubber Works established its factories near the town of Nokia and began using Nokia as its product brand.<ref name="Nokian Footwear">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokianfootwear.fi/eng/our_story/|title=Nokian Footwear: History|publisher=Nokian Footwear|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref> In 1912, Arvid Wickström founded [[Kaapelitehdas|Finnish Cable Works]], producer of [[Twisted pair#Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)|telephone]], [[Telegraphy|telegraph]] and [[Cable#Electrical cables|electrical cables]] and the foundation of Nokia's [[cable]] and [[electronics]] businesses.<ref name="First century"/> At the end of the [[1910s]], shortly after [[World War I]], the Nokia Company was nearing [[bankruptcy]].<ref name="Kumi">{{cite book|last=Palo-oja|first=Ritva|coauthors=Willberg, Leena|title=Kumi – Kumin ja Suomen kumiteollisuuden historia|publisher=Tampere Museums|location=Tampere, Finland|year=1998|pages=43–53|isbn=9789516090651|accessdate=2009-03-16|language=Finnish}}</ref> To ensure the continuation of electricity supply from Nokia's [[Electrical generator|generators]], Finnish Rubber Works acquired the business of the insolvent company.<ref name="Kumi"/> In 1922, Finnish Rubber Works acquired Finnish Cable Works.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kaapelitehdas.fi/php/image.php?id=4856|title=Finnish Cable Factory – Brief History|format=PDF|publisher=[http://www.kaapelitehdas.fi Kaapelitehdas.fi]|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref> In 1937, [[Verner Weckman]], a sport wrestler and Finland's first [[Wrestling at the 1908 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman light heavyweight|Olympic Gold medalist]], became President of Finnish Cable Works, after 16 years as its Technical Director.<ref name="Weckman">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/nokias-first-century/verner-weckman|title=Nokia – Verner Weckman – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-20}}</ref> After [[World War II]], Finnish Cable Works supplied cables to the [[Soviet Union]] as part of Finland's [[war reparations]]. This gave the company a good foothold for later trade.<ref name="Weckman"/>
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The three companies, which had been jointly owned since 1922, were merged to form a new industrial [[Conglomerate (company)|conglomerate]], Nokia Corporation in 1967 and paved the way for Nokia's future as a global corporation.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/nokias-first-century/the-merger|title=Nokia – The merger – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref> The new company was involved in many [[Industry|industries]], producing at one time or another [[paper]] products, [[Automobile|car]] and [[bicycle]] [[tire]]s, [[footwear]] (including [[Wellington boot]]s), communications [[cable]]s, [[television]]s and other [[consumer electronics]], [[personal computer]]s, [[electricity generation]] machinery, [[robotics]], [[capacitor]]s, [[Military technology and equipment|military communications and equipment]] (such as the [[Sanomalaite M/90|SANLA M/90]] device and the [[M61|M61 gas mask]] for the [[Finnish Army]]), [[plastic]]s, [[aluminium]] and [[Chemical substance|chemicals]].<ref name="Towards Telecommunications"/> Each business unit had its own director who reported to the first Nokia Corporation President, [[Björn Westerlund]]. As the president of the Finnish Cable Works, he had been responsible for setting up the company’s first electronics department in 1960, sowing the seeds of Nokia’s future in telecommunications.<ref name="Cable electronics">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/nokias-first-century/first-electronic-dept|title=Nokia – First electronic dept – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref>
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Eventually, the company decided to leave consumer electronics behind in the 1990s and focused solely on the fastest growing segments in telecommunications.<ref name="Jorma Ollila">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/mobile-revolution/jorma-ollila|title=Nokia – Jorma Ollila – Mobile revolution – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref> [[Nokian Tyres]], manufacturer of tyres split from Nokia Corporation to form its own company in 1988<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokiantyres.com/history-in-brief|title=History in brief|publisher=Nokian Tyres|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> and two years later [[Nokian Footwear]], manufacturer of rubber boots, was founded.<ref name="Nokian Footwear"/> During the rest of the 1990s, Nokia divested itself of all of its non-telecommunications businesses.<ref name="Jorma Ollila"/>
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===Telecommunications era===
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The seeds of the current incarnation of Nokia were planted with the founding of the [[electronics]] section of the cable division in 1960 and the production of its first electronic device in 1962: a pulse analyzer designed for use in [[nuclear power]] plants.<ref name="Cable electronics"/> In the 1967 fusion, that section was separated into its own division, and began manufacturing telecommunications equipment.
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====Networking equipment====
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In the 1970s, Nokia became more involved in the [[telecommunication]]s industry by developing the [[Nokia DX 200|Nokia DX&nbsp;200]], a digital switch for [[telephone exchange]]s. In 1982, a DX&nbsp;200 switch became the world's first [[Microcontroller|microprocessor controlled]] telephone exchange and the first fully digital exchange to be taken into service in Europe. The DX&nbsp;200 became the workhorse of the network equipment division. Its modular and flexible architecture enabled it to be developed into various switching products.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/u/kerola/tkhist/k2000/alustukset/puhelinkeskukset/|title=Automaattisten puhelinkeskusten historia|last=Kaituri|first=Tommi|year=2000|language=Finnish|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref> In 1984, development of a version of the exchange for the [[Nordic Mobile Telephone|Nordic Mobile Telephony]] network was started.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.etla.fi/files/677_dp855.pdf|title=Overcoming a Technological Discontinuity – The Case of the Finnish Telecom Industry and the GSM|last=Palmberg|first=Christopher|coauthors=Martikainen, Olli|date=2003-05-23|format=PDF|publisher=The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy|accessdate=2009-06-14}}</ref>
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For a while in the 1970s, Nokia's network equipment production was separated into ''Telefenno'', a company jointly owned by the parent corporation and by a company owned by the Finnish state. In 1987, the state sold its shares to Nokia and in 1992 the name was changed to Nokia Telecommunications.
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In the 1970s and 1980s, Nokia developed the Sanomalaitejärjestelmä ("Message device system"), a digital, portable and encrypted text-based communications device for the [[Finnish Defence Forces]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mil.fi/maavoimat/kalustoesittely/index.dsp?level=81|title=Puolustusvoimat: Kalustoesittely – Sanomalaitejärjestelmä|date=2005-06-15|publisher=The Finnish Defence Forces|language=Finnish|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> The current main unit used by the Defence Forces is the [[Sanomalaite M/90]] (SANLA M/90).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mil.fi/maavoimat/kalustoesittely/00030_en.dsp|title=The Finnish Defence Forces: Presentation of equipment: Message device|publisher=The Finnish Defence Forces|accessdate=2009-06-14}}</ref>
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====First mobile phones====
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[[File:Nokia 150 and nokia 1100.jpg|thumb|150px|The Mobira Cityman 150, Nokia's [[Nordic Mobile Telephone|NMT-900]] mobile phone from 1989 (left), compared to the [[Nokia 1100]] from 2003.<ref name="Nokia 1100">{{cite press release|title=Nokia 1100 phone offers reliable and affordable mobile communications for new growth markets|publisher=Nokia Corporation|date=2003-08-27|url=http://press.nokia.com/PR/200308/915317_5.html|accessdate=2009-05-26}}</ref> The Mobira Cityman line was launched in 1987.<ref name="Mobira Cityman"/>]]
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The technologies that preceded modern cellular mobile telephony systems were the various "0G" pre-cellular [[Mobile radio telephone|mobile radio telephony]] standards. Nokia had been producing commercial and some military mobile radio communications technology since the 1960s, although this part of the company was sold some time before the later company rationalization. Since 1964, Nokia had developed [[Very high frequency|VHF]] radio simultaneously with Salora Oy. In 1966, Nokia and Salora started developing the [[Autoradiopuhelin|ARP]] standard (which stands for Autoradiopuhelin, or ''car radio phone'' in English), a car-based mobile radio telephony system and the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. It went online in 1971 and offered 100% coverage in 1978.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.it.lut.fi/kurssit/06-07/Ti5312600/luentokalvot/luento07-08.pdf|title=Siirtyvä tietoliikenne, luennot 7-8: Matkapuhelinverkot|last=Juutilainen|first=Matti|format=PDF|publisher=Lappeenranta University of Technology|language=Finnish|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref>
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In 1979, the merger of Nokia and Salora resulted in the establishment of Mobira Oy. Mobira began developing mobile phones for the [[Nordic Mobile Telephone|NMT]] (Nordic Mobile Telephony) network standard, the [[1G|first-generation]], first fully-automatic [[cellular phone]] system that went online in 1981.<ref name="Mobile era">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/the-move-to-mobile/mobile-era-begins|title=Nokia – Mobile era begins – The move to mobile – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-20}}</ref> In 1982, Mobira introduced its first [[car phone]], the Mobira Senator for NMT-450 networks.<ref name="Mobile era"/>
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Nokia bought Salora Oy in 1984 and now owning 100% of the company, changed the company's telecommunications branch name to Nokia-Mobira Oy.
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The Mobira Talkman, launched in 1984, was one of the world's first transportable phones. In 1987, Nokia introduced one of the world's first handheld phones, the Mobira Cityman 900 for NMT-900 networks (which, compared to NMT-450, offered a better signal, yet a shorter roam). While the Mobira Senator of 1982 had weighed {{convert|9.8|kg|abbr=on}} and the Talkman just under {{convert|5|kg|abbr=on}}, the Mobira Cityman weighed only {{convert|800|g|abbr=on}} with the battery and had a price tag of 24,000 [[Finnish markka|Finnish marks]] (approximately €4,560).<ref name="Mobira Cityman">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/the-move-to-mobile/mobira-cityman|title=Nokia – Mobira Cityman – The move to mobile – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Despite the high price, the first phones were almost snatched from the sales assistants’ hands. Initially, the mobile phone was a "[[yuppie]]" product and a [[status symbol]].<ref name="Towards Telecommunications"/>
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Nokia's mobile phones got a big publicity boost in 1987, when [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] leader [[Mikhail Gorbachev]] was pictured using a Mobira Cityman to make a call from [[Helsinki]] to his communications minister in [[Moscow]]. This led to the phone's nickname of the "Gorba".<ref name="Mobira Cityman"/>
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In 1988, Jorma Nieminen, resigning from the post of [[Chief executive officer|CEO]] of the mobile phone unit, along with two other employees from the unit, started a notable mobile phone company of their own, Benefon Oy (since renamed to [[GeoSentric]]).<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.talouselama.fi/sijoittaminen/article165594.ece|title=Tähdet syöksyvät, Benefon|last=Karttunen|first=Anu|date=2003-05-02|work=Talouselämä|publisher=Talentum Oyj|language=Finnish|accessdate=2009-07-28}}</ref> One year later, Nokia-Mobira Oy became Nokia Mobile Phones.
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====Involvement in GSM====
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Nokia was one of the key developers of [[GSM]] (Global System for Mobile Communications),<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://press.nokia.com/PR/199710/776687_5.html|title=Nokia´s Pioneering GSM Research and Development to be Awarded by Eduard Rhein Foundation|date=1997-10-17|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> the [[2G|second-generation]] mobile technology which could carry data as well as voice traffic. [[Nordic Mobile Telephone|NMT]] (Nordic Mobile Telephony), the world's first mobile telephony standard that enabled international [[roaming]], provided valuable experience for Nokia for its close participation in developing GSM, which was adopted in 1987 as the new European standard for digital mobile technology.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://gsmworld.com/newsroom/press-releases/2070.htm|title=Global Mobile Communication is 20 years old|date=2007-09-06|publisher=GSM Association|accessdate=2009-03-23}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.zdnet.co.uk/leader/0,1000002982,39289154,00.htm|title=Happy 20th birthday, GSM|date=2007-09-07|work=ZDNet.co.uk|publisher=CBS Interactive|accessdate=2009-03-23}}</ref>
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Nokia delivered its first GSM network to the Finnish operator [[Radiolinja]] in 1989.<ref name="GSM">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/the-move-to-mobile/first-gsm-call|title=Nokia – First GSM call – The move to mobile – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-20}}</ref> The world's first commercial GSM call was made on July 1, 1991 in [[Helsinki]], Finland over a Nokia-supplied network, by then [[Prime Minister of Finland]] [[Harri Holkeri]], using a prototype Nokia GSM phone.<ref name="GSM"/> In 1992, the first GSM phone, the [[Nokia 1011]], was launched.<ref name="GSM"/><ref name="Nokia 1011">{{cite web|url=http://www.reghardware.co.uk/2007/11/09/ft_nokia_1011/|title=15 years ago: the first mass-produced GSM phone|last=Smith|first=Tony|date=2007-11-09|work=Register Hardware|publisher=Situation Publishing Ltd|accessdate=2009-03-23}}</ref> The model number refers to its launch date, 10 November.<ref name="Nokia 1011"/> The Nokia 1011 did not yet employ Nokia's characteristic ringtone, the [[Nokia tune]]. It was introduced as a ringtone in 1994 with the [[Nokia 2000 series#Nokia 2000 series .E2.80.93 Basic series|Nokia 2100 series]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/mobile-revolution/nokia-tune|title=Nokia – Nokia Tune – Mobile revolution – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-23}}</ref>
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GSM's high-quality voice calls, easy international roaming and support for new services like text messaging ([[SMS]]) laid the foundations for a worldwide boom in mobile phone use.<ref name="GSM"/> GSM came to dominate the world of mobile telephony in the 1990s, in mid-2008 accounting for about three billion mobile telephone subscribers in the world, with more than 700 mobile [[Mobile network operator|operators]] across 218 countries and territories. New connections are added at the rate of 15 per second, or 1.3 million per day.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gsmworld.com/newsroom/press-releases/2008/1108.htm|title=3 Billion GSM Connections On The Mobile Planet – Reports The GSMA|date=2008-04-16|publisher=GSM Association|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref>
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====Personal computers and IT equipment====
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{{See also|MikroMikko|Nokia Booklet 3G}}
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[[File:Nokia booklet 3g-10 (3949263497).jpg|thumb|225px|The [[Nokia Booklet 3G]] mini laptop.]]
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In the 1980s, Nokia's computer division Nokia Data produced a series of [[personal computer]]s called [[MikroMikko]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.old-computers.com/museum/computer.asp?st=1&c=630|title=Nokia MikroMikko 1|publisher=Old-Computers.com|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> MikroMikko was Nokia Data's attempt to enter the business computer market. The first model in the line, MikroMikko 1, was released on September 29, 1981,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fujitsuservices.fi/historia/net/1980.htm|title=Net – Fujitsun asiakaslehti, Net-lehden historia: 1980-luku|publisher=Fujitsu Services Oy, Finland|language=Finnish|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> around the same time as the first [[IBM Personal Computer|IBM PC]]. However, the personal computer division was sold to the British [[International Computers Limited|ICL]] (International Computers Limited) in 1991, which later became part of [[Fujitsu]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fujitsu.com/fi/about/history/1991/|title=Historia: 1991–1999|publisher=Fujitsu Services Oy, Finland|language=Finnish|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> MikroMikko remained a trademark of ICL and later Fujitsu. Internationally the MikroMikko line was marketed by Fujitsu as the ErgoPro.
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Fujitsu later transferred its personal computer operations to [[Fujitsu Siemens Computers]], which shut down its only factory in [[Espoo]], Finland (in the [[Kilo, Espoo|Kilo]] district, where computers had been produced since the 1960s) at the end of March 2000,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eiro.eurofound.eu.int/2000/02/feature/fi0002136f.html|title=Closure of Fujitsu Siemens plant – a repeat of Renault Vilvoorde?|last=Hietanen|first=Juha|date=2000-02-28|publisher=EIRO, European Industrial Relations Observatory on-line|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2000/02/word/fi0002136ffi.doc|title=Fujitsu Siemens tehdas suljetaan – toistuiko Renault Vilvoord?|last=Hietanen|first=Juha|date=2000-02-28|format=DOC|publisher=EIRO, European Industrial Relations Observatory on-line|language=Finnish|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> thus ending large-scale PC manufacturing in the country. Nokia was also known for producing very high quality [[Cathode ray tube|CRT]] and early [[Thin film transistor liquid crystal display|TFT LCD]] displays for PC and larger systems application. The Nokia Display Products' branded business was sold to [[ViewSonic]] in 2000.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://press.nokia.com/PR/200001/775025_5.html|title=ViewSonic Corporation Acquires Nokia Display Products' Branded Business|date=2000-01-17|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> In addition to personal computers and displays, Nokia used to manufacture [[DSL modem]]s and digital [[set-top box]]es.
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Nokia re-entered the PC market in August 2009 with the introduction of the [[Nokia Booklet 3G]] mini laptop.<ref name="Booklet 3G">{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/press/press-releases/showpressrelease?newsid=1336683|title=Nokia Booklet 3G brings all day mobility to the PC world|date=2009-08-24|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-08-26}}</ref>
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====Challenges of growth====
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In the 1980s, during the era of its CEO [[Kari Kairamo]], Nokia expanded into new fields, mostly by acquisitions. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the corporation ran into serious financial problems, a major reason being its heavy losses by the television manufacturing division and businesses that were just too diverse.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.taloussanomat.fi/arkisto/2000/09/27/kari-kairamon-nousu-ja-tuho/200026243/12|title=Kari Kairamon nousu ja tuho|last=Pietilä|first=Antti-Pekka|date=2000-09-27|work=Taloussanomat|language=Finnish|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref> These problems, and a suspected total [[Burnout (psychology)|burnout]], probably contributed to Kairamo taking his own life in 1988. After Kairamo's death, [[Simo Vuorilehto]] became Nokia's Chairman and CEO. In 1990–1993, Finland underwent [[Early 1990s recession|severe economic depression]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cepr.org/PRESS/EP29%20finland.htm|title=Finland: How bad policies turned bad luck into a recession|publisher=Centre for Economic Policy Research|accessdate=2009-04-05}}</ref> which also struck Nokia. Under Vuorilehto's management, Nokia was severely overhauled. The company responded by streamlining its telecommunications divisions, and by divesting itself of the television and PC divisions.<ref>{{cite book|last=Häikiö|first=Martti|coauthors=translated by Hackston, David|title=Nokia Oyj:n historia 1–3 (A history of Nokia plc 1–3)|publisher=Edita|location=Helsinki|year=2001|isbn=951-37-3467-6|url=http://www.finlit.fi/booksfromfinland/bff/102/nokia.htm|accessdate=2008-03-21|language=Finnish}}</ref>
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Probably the most important strategic change in Nokia's history was made in 1992, however, when the new CEO [[Jorma Ollila]] made a crucial strategic decision to concentrate solely on telecommunications.<ref name="Jorma Ollila"/> Thus, during the rest of the 1990s, the [[rubber]], [[cable]] and [[consumer electronics]] divisions were gradually sold as Nokia continued to divest itself of all of its non-telecommunications businesses.<ref name="Jorma Ollila"/>
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As late as 1991, more than a quarter of Nokia's turnover still came from sales in Finland. However, after the strategic change of 1992, Nokia saw a huge increase in sales to [[North America]], [[South America]] and [[Asia]].<ref name="Largest">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/story-of-nokia/mobile-revolution/leading-the-world|title=Nokia – Leading the world – Mobile revolution – Story of Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref> The exploding worldwide popularity of mobile telephones, beyond even Nokia's most optimistic predictions, caused a [[logistics]] crisis in the mid-1990s.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/aug2006/gb20060803_618811.htm|title=Nokia's Magnificent Mobile-Phone Manufacturing Machine|last=Reinhardt|first=Andy|date=2006-08-03|work=BusinessWeek Online Europe|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref> This prompted Nokia to overhaul its entire logistics operation.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://stuff.mit.edu/afs/athena/course/15/15.795/Nokia%20Supply%20Chain%20Case%20Study.pdf|title=Nokia Mobile Phones: Supply Line Management|last=Professor Voomann|first=Thomas E.|coauthors=Cordon, Carlos|year=1998|format=PDF|publisher=IMD – International Institute for Management Development|location=Lausanne, Switzerland|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref> By 1998, Nokia’s focus on telecommunications and its early investment in GSM technologies had made the company the world's largest mobile phone manufacturer.<ref name="Largest"/> Between 1996 and 2001, Nokia’s turnover increased almost fivefold from 6.5 billion euros to 31 billion euros.<ref name="Largest"/> Logistics continues to be one of Nokia's major advantages over its rivals, along with greater [[Economy of scale|economies of scale]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_31/b4044050.htm|title=Why Nokia Is Leaving Moto in the Dust|last=Ewing|first=Jack|date=2007-07-30|work=BusinessWeek Online|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://imba.nccu.edu.tw/OIP/EXchange/Docs/F04/mis/final/group6/SCM%20in%20Nokia%20-%20Written%20report-V1.0.pdf|title=Supply Chain Management Case Nokia|last=Lin|first=Porter|coauthors=Khan, Raedeep; Piekute, Vaida; Luhtasela, Jussi; Fang, Debby|date=2005-12-01|format=PDF|publisher=IMBA, College of Commerce, National Chengchi University|accessdate=2009-03-21}}</ref>
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===Recent history===
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{{Article issues| section =January 2010
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| recent = May 2008
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| proseline = March 2008
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|date=January 2010}}
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====Milestones and releases====
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[[File:Nokia evolucion tamaño.jpg|thumb|right|225px|Reduction in size of Nokia mobile phones.]]
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[[File:All 9xxx.png|thumb|225px|Evolution of the [[Nokia Communicator]]. Models 9000, 9110, 9210 and 9500 shown.]]
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Nokia opened its [[Komárom]], [[Hungary]] mobile phone factory on May 5, 2000.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://press.nokia.com/PR/200005/780293_5.html|title=Hungarian and Finnish Prime Ministers Inaugurate Nokia's "Factory of the Future" in Komárom|date=2000-05-05|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref>
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In March 2007, Nokia signed a memorandum with [[Cluj County]] Council, [[Romania]] to open a new plant near the city in [[Jucu]] commune.<ref name="Romania"/><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.boston.com/news/world/europe/articles/2007/03/22/nokia_to_open_cell_phone_plant_near_cluj/|title=Nokia to open cell phone plant near Cluj|date=2007-03-22|agency=Associated Press|publisher=Boston.com|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Nokia+to+build+mobile+phone+plant+in+Romania/1135226144930|title=Nokia to build mobile phone plant in Romania|date=2007-03-27|work=Helsingin Sanomat|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Moving the production from the [[Bochum]], [[Germany]] factory to a low wage country created an uproar in Germany.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,3076534,00.html|title=German Politicians Return Cell Phones Amid Nokia Boycott Calls|date=2008-01-18|work=[[Deutsche Welle]]|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/0,1518,540699,00.html|title=German State Demands €60 Million from Nokia|date=2008-03-11|work=[[Der Spiegel]]|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref>
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In May 2007, Nokia announced that its [[Nokia 1100]] handset, launched in 2003,<ref name="Nokia 1100"/> with over 200 million units shipped, was the best-selling mobile phone of all time and the world's top-selling [[consumer electronics]] product.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUSL0262945620070503|title=Nokia's cheap phone tops electronics chart|last=Virki|first=Tarmo|date=2007-03-05|agency=Reuters|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
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In November 2007, Nokia announced and released the [[Nokia N82]], its first (and currently, only) Nseries phone with [[Flashtube|Xenon flash]].
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At the Nokia World conference in December 2007, Nokia announced their "Comes With Music" program: Nokia device buyers are to receive a year of complimentary access to music downloads.<ref name="Nokia World 2007">{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136001?newsid=1172937|title=Nokia World 2007: Nokia outlines its vision of Internet evolution and commitment to environmental sustainability|date=2007-12-04|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> The service became commercially available in the second half of 2008.
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In April 2008, Nokia began finding new ways to connect people, asking the "audience" to use their creativity and their mobile devices to become Nokia’s production company – to take part in filming, acting, editing and producing a collaborative film. Nokia Productions was the first ever mobile filmmaking project directed by [[Spike Lee]]. This was a collaborative experience that existed across borders and perspectives, working off a common script. The film premiered in October 2008.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/press/press-releases/showpressrelease?newsid=1259528|title=Nokia Productions and Spike Lee premiere the world's first social film|date=2008-10-14|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-06-12}}</ref>
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In 2008, Nokia released the [[Nokia E71]] which was marketed to directly compete with the other [[BlackBerry]] devices offering a full keyboard and cheaper prices.
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Nokia announced in August 2009 that they will be selling a high-end [[Microsoft Windows|Windows]]-based [[netbook|mini laptop]] called the [[Nokia Booklet 3G]].<ref name="Booklet 3G"/>
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On September 2, 2009, Nokia launched two new music and social networking phones, the X6 and X3.<ref>{{cite press release|title=Nokia seizes social internet and amplifies music experience|publisher=Nokia Corporation|date=2009-09-02|url=http://www.nokia.com/press/press-releases/showpressrelease?newsid=1338896|accessdate=2009-10-12}}</ref> The Nokia X6 features 32GB of on-board memory with a 3.2" finger touch interface and comes with a music playback time of 35 hours. The Nokia X3 is a first series 40 Ovi Store-enabled device. The X3 is a music device that comes with stereo speakers, built-in FM radio, and a 3.2 megapixel camera.
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On September 10, 2009, Nokia unveiled a new handset 7705 Twist, a phone with a sports square shape that swivels open to reveal a full QWERTY keypad.<ref>{{cite web|title=Nokia 7705 Twist launched Stateside on Verizon (photo gallery)|url=http://conversations.nokia.com/2009/09/10/nokia-7705-twist-launched-stateside-on-verizon-photo-gallery/|publisher=Nokia Corporation|date=2009-09-10|accessdate=2009-10-11}}</ref> The new mobile, which will be available exclusively through Verizon Wireless, features a 3 megapixel camera, web browsing, voice commands and weighs around 3.44 ounces.
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====Reorganizations====
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In April 2003, the troubles of the networks equipment division caused the corporation to resort to similar streamlining practices on that side, including [[layoff]]s and organizational restructuring.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://press.nokia.com/PR/200304/898905_5.html|title=Nokia Networks takes strong measures to reduce costs, improve profitability and strengthen leadership position|date=2003-04-10|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> This diminished Nokia's public image in Finland,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www2.hs.fi/english/archive/news.asp?id=20030411IE6|title=Nokia Networks to shed 1,800 jobs worldwide; majority of impact felt in Finland|date=2003-04-11|work=Helsingin Sanomat|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2003/04/10/nokia_networks_axes/|title=Nokia Networks axes 1,800 staff|last=Leyden|first=John|date=2003-04-10|work=The Register|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> and produced a number of [[court case]]s and an episode of a [[Documentary film|documentary television show]] critical of Nokia.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yle.fi/mot/kj050117/englishscript.htm|title=Nokia's Law (transcription)|date=2005-01-17|publisher=YLE TV1, Mot|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
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On February 2006, Nokia and [[Sanyo]] announced a [[memorandum of understanding]] to create a joint venture addressing the [[Code division multiple access|CDMA]] handset business. But in June, they announced ending negotiations without agreement. Nokia also stated its decision to pull out of CDMA research and development, to continue CDMA business in selected markets.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1059331|title=Nokia and Sanyo proposed new company will not proceed|date=2006-06-26|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1059329|title=Nokia decides not to go forward with Sanyo CDMA partnership and plans broad restructuring of its CDMA business|date=2006-06-22|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1034612|title=Nokia and Sanyo Announce Intent to Form a Global CDMA Mobile Phones Business|date=2006-02-14|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
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In June 2006, Jorma Ollila left his position as [[CEO]] to become the [[chairman]] of [[Royal Dutch Shell]]<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.shell.com/home/content/media/news_and_library/press_releases/2005/pr_announcement_04082005.html|title=Shell appoints Jorma Ollila as new Chairman|date=2005-08-04|publisher=Royal Dutch Shell|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> and to give way for [[Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo]].<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1004430|title=Nokia moves forward with management succession plan|date=2005-08-01|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=41296&LAN=ENG|title=Changing the guard at Nokia – Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo takes the helm|last=Repo|first=Eljas|coauthors=Melender, Tommi|date=2005-09-19|work=Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland|publisher=Virtual Finland|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref>
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In May 2008, Nokia announced on their annual stockholder meeting that they want to shift to the [[Internet]] business as a whole. Nokia no longer wants to be seen as the [[telephone]] company. [[Google]], [[Apple Inc.|Apple]] and [[Microsoft]] are not seen as natural competition for their new image but they are considered as major important players to deal with.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nds1.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/Microsites/AGM_2008/pdf/OPK_AGM_2008_ENGLISH.pdf|title=2008 Nokia Annual General Meeting (transcription)|last=Kallasvuo|first=Olli-Pekka; President and CEO|date=2008-05-08|publisher=Nokia Corporation|location=[[Helsinki Fair Centre]], Amfi Hall|format=PDF|accessdate=2009-06-12}}</ref>
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In November 2008, Nokia announced it was ceasing mobile phone distribution in Japan.<ref name="ノキア、日本の事業展開の見直し">{{cite news|url=http://www.nokia.co.jp/about/release_081127.shtml|title=ノキア、日本の事業展開の見直し|date=2008-11-27|publisher=ノキア・ジャパン – プレスリリース – ノキアについて|language=Japanese|accessdate=2008-12-05}}</ref> Following early December, distribution of [[Nokia E71]] is cancelled, both from [[NTT docomo]] and [[SoftBank Mobile]]. Nokia Japan retains global research & development programs, sourcing business, and an [[MVNO]] venture of [[Vertu]] luxury phones, using docomo's telecommunications network.
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====Acquisitions====
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{{Mainlist|List of acquisitions by Nokia}}
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[[File:Nokia E55 01.jpg|thumb|225px|The [[Nokia E55]], a mobile phone in the business segment and part of the Nokia [[Eseries]] range.]]
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On September 22, 2003, Nokia acquired Sega.com, a branch of [[Sega]] which became the major basis to develop the Nokia [[N-Gage]] device.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=918198|title=Nokia completes acquisition of assets of Sega.com Inc.|date=2003-09-22|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref>
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On November 16, 2005, Nokia and [[Intellisync|Intellisync Corporation]], a provider of data and PIM synchronization software, signed a definitive agreement for Nokia to acquire Intellisync.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1021663|title=Nokia to extend leadership in enterprise mobility with acquisition of Intellisync|date=2005-11-16|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> Nokia completed the acquisition on February 10, 2006.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1034184|title=Nokia completes acquisition of Intellisync|date=2006-02-10|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref>
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On June 19, 2006, Nokia and [[Siemens AG]] announced the companies would merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world's largest network firms, [[Nokia Siemens Networks]].<ref name="NSN">{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1057716|title=Nokia and Siemens to merge their communications service provider businesses|date=2006-06-19|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref> Each company has a 50% stake in the infrastructure company, and it is headquartered in [[Espoo]], Finland. The companies predicted annual sales of €16 [[1000000000 (number)|bn]] and cost savings of €1.5 bn a year by 2010. About 20,000 Nokia employees were transferred to this new company.
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On August 8, 2006, Nokia and Loudeye Corp. announced that they had signed an agreement for Nokia to acquire online music distributor Loudeye Corporation for approximately US $60 million.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1067845|title=Nokia to acquire Loudeye and launch a comprehensive mobile music experience|date=2006-08-08|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> The company has been developing this into an online music service in the hope of using it to generate handset sales. The service, launched on August 29, 2007, is aimed to rival [[iTunes]]. Nokia completed the acquisition on October 16, 2006.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136001?newsid=1081455|title=Nokia completes Loudeye acquisition|date=2006-10-16|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
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In July 2007, Nokia acquired all assets of [[Twango]], the comprehensive media sharing solution for organizing and sharing photos, videos and other personal media.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136001?newsid=1141417|title=Nokia acquires Twango to offer a comprehensive media sharing experience|date=2007-07-24|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/Press/Materials/NokiaTwangoFAQ.pdf|title=Nokia Acquires Twango – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
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In September 2007, Nokia announced its intention to acquire [[Enpocket]], a supplier of mobile advertising [[technology]] and services.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136001?newsid=1153772|title=Nokia to acquire Enpocket to create a global mobile advertising leader|date=2007-09-17|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
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In October 2007, pending shareholder and regulatory approval, Nokia bought [[Navteq]], a U.S.-based supplier of digital mapping data, for a price of $8.1 billion.<ref name="Navteq"/><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.infoworld.com/article/07/10/01/Nokia-buys-mapping-service-for-8.1-billion_1.html|title=Nokia buys mapping service for $8.1 billion|last=Niccolai|first=James|date=2007-10-01|work=IDG News Service|publisher=InfoWorld|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Nokia finalized the acquisition on July 10, 2008.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136001?newsid=1235107|title=Nokia completes its acquisition of NAVTEQ|date=2008-07-10|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-03-22}}</ref>
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In September, 2008, Nokia acquired OZ Communications, a privately held company with approximately 220 employees headquartered in Montreal, Canada.<ref name="Nokia to acquire leading consumer email and instant messaging provider OZ Communications">{{cite news|url=http://news.taume.com/World-Business/Business-Finance/Nokia-to-acquire-leading-consumer-email-and-instant-messaging-provider-OZ-Communications-6922|title=Nokia to acquire leading consumer email and instant messaging provider OZ Communications|date=September 30, 2008|work=Taume News|accessdate=2008-09-30}}</ref>
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On July 24, 2009, Nokia announced that it will acquire certain assets of cellity, a privately owned mobile software company which employs 14 people in Hamburg, Germany.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/press/press-releases/showpressrelease?newsid=1330831|title=Nokia to acquire cellity|date=2009-07-24|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-08-04}}</ref> The acquisition of cellity was completed on August 5, 2009.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/press/press-releases/showpressrelease?newsid=1332884|title=Nokia completes acquisition of cellity|date=2009-08-05|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-08-06}}</ref>
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On September 11, 2009, Nokia announced the acquisition of "certain assets of Plum Ventures, Inc, a privately held company which employed approximately 10 people with main offices in Boston, Massachusetts. Plum will complement Nokia’s Social Location services".<ref>{{cite press release|title=Nokia has acquired Plum|url=http://www.nokia.com/press/press-releases/showpressrelease?newsid=1340931|publisher=Nokia Corporation|date=2009-09-11|accessdate=2010-01-28}}</ref>
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==Corporate affairs==
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===Corporate structure===
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====Divisions====
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Since October 1, 2009, Nokia comprises three business groups: '''Devices''', '''Services''', '''Solutions''' and '''Markets'''.<ref name="Structure">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/about-nokia/company/structure|title=Structure|date=2009-10-01|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-12-28}}</ref> The four units receive operational support from the '''Corporate Development Office''', led by [[Mary T. McDowell]], which is also responsible for exploring corporate strategic and future growth opportunities.<ref name="Structure"/>
  +
  +
On April 1, 2007, Nokia’s Networks business group was combined with [[Siemens AG|Siemens]]’ carrier-related operations for fixed and mobile networks to form [[Nokia Siemens Networks]], jointly owned by Nokia and Siemens and consolidated by Nokia.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136002?newsid=1116423|title=Nokia Siemens Networks starts operations and assumes a leading position in the communications industry|date=2007-04-02|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-04-07}}</ref>
  +
  +
=====Devices=====
  +
[[File:Nokia N900-1.jpg|thumb|225px|The [[Nokia N900]], a [[Maemo|Maemo 5]] [[Linux]] based mobile Internet device and [[touchscreen]] [[smartphone]] from Nokia's [[Nseries]] portfolio.]]
  +
The Devices division is responsible for developing and managing Nokia's mobile device portfolio, including the sourcing of components, headed by Kai Öistämö.<ref name="Structure"/> The division consists of the previous mainline Mobile Phones division with the separate subdivisions Multimedia ([[Nokia Nseries|Nseries]] devices) and Enterprise Solutions ([[Nokia Eseries|Eseries]] devices) as well as formerly centralized core devices R&D – called Technology Platforms.
  +
  +
This division provides the general public with mobile voice and data products across a wide range of mobile devices, including high-volume, consumer oriented mobile phones and devices, and more expensive multimedia and enterprise-class devices. The devices are based on [[GSM]]/[[Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution|EDGE]], [[3G]]/[[W-CDMA (UMTS)|W-CDMA]] and [[Code division multiple access|CDMA]] cellular technologies. Nokia's [[Nokia Nseries|Nseries]] Multimedia Computers extensively uses [[Symbian OS]].
  +
  +
In the first quarter of 2006 Nokia sold over 15 million MP3 capable mobile phones, which means that Nokia is not only the world's leading supplier of mobile phones and digital cameras (as most of Nokia's mobile telephones feature digital cameras, it is also believed that Nokia has recently overtaken Kodak in camera production making it the largest in the world), Nokia is now also the leading supplier of digital audio players (MP3 players), outpacing sales of devices such as the [[iPod]] from [[Apple Inc.|Apple]]. At the end of the year 2007, Nokia managed to sell almost 440 million mobile phones which accounted for 40% of all global mobile phones sales.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-04-17-173945271_x.htm|title=Nokia's 25 percent profit jump falls short of expectations|date=2008-04-17|agency=Associated Press|publisher=USA Today|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
  +
  +
=====Services=====
  +
The Services division operates in five areas of consumer Internet services: music, maps, media, messaging and games.<ref name="Structure"/> The division consists of the previous enterprise and consumer driver services businesses previously hosted in Multimedia and Enterprise Solutions divisions, as well as a number of new acquisitions (Loudeye, Gate5, [[Enpocket]], [[Intellisync]], Avvenu and OZ Communications), headed by [[Niklas Savander]].
  +
  +
The group works with companies outside the telecommunications industry to make advances in the technology and bring new applications and possibilities in areas such as [[Online service provider|online services]], [[optics]], music synchronization and [[streaming media]].
  +
  +
=====Solutions=====
  +
Solutions is responsible for Nokia's offering of solutions, where the mobile device, personalized services and content are integrated into a package for the consumer. The unit is led by Alberto Torres.
  +
  +
=====Markets=====
  +
The Markets division, the successor organization to Nokia's Customer and Market Operations division, is responsible for the management of the [[supply chain]]s, sales channels, brand and marketing functions of the company, headed by Anssi Vanjoki.<ref name="Structure"/>
  +
  +
====Subsidiaries====
  +
[[File:Nokia 5800 XpressMusic Browser.jpg|thumb|225px|The [[Nokia 5800 XpressMusic]], a touchscreen smartphone and portable entertainment device which emphasizes music and multimedia playback.]]
  +
  +
Nokia has several subsidiaries, of which the two most significant as of 2009 are [[Nokia Siemens Networks]] and [[Navteq]].<ref name="Structure"/> Other notable subsidiaries include, but are not limited to [[Vertu]], a British-based manufacturer and retailer of luxury mobile phones; [[Qt Software]], a Norwegian-based software company, and OZ Communications, a consumer e-mail and instant messaging provider.
  +
  +
Until 2008 Nokia was the major shareholder in [[Symbian Ltd.|Symbian Limited]], a software development and licensing company that produced [[Symbian OS]], a smartphone operating system used by Nokia and other manufacturers. In 2008 Nokia acquired Symbian Ltd and, along with a number of other companies, created the [[Symbian Foundation]] to distribute the [[Symbian|Symbian platform]] royalty free and as [[open source]].
  +
  +
=====Nokia Siemens Networks=====
  +
{{Main|Nokia Siemens Networks}}
  +
  +
Nokia Siemens Networks (previously Nokia Networks) provides wireless and wired network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms, as well as professional services to operators and service providers.<ref name="Structure"/> Nokia Siemens Networks focuses in [[GSM]], [[Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution|EDGE]], [[3G]]/[[W-CDMA (UMTS)|W-CDMA]] and [[WiMAX]] radio access networks; core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities; and services.
  +
  +
On June 19, 2006 Nokia and [[Siemens AG]] announced the companies are to merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world's largest network firms, called [[Nokia Siemens Networks]].<ref name="NSN"/> The Nokia Siemens Networks brand identity was subsequently launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.underconsideration.com/brandnew/archives/the_wave_of_the_future.php|title=The Wave of the Future|date=2007-03-25|work=Brand New: Opinions on Corporate and Brand Identity Work|publisher=UnderConsideration LLC|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.identityworks.com/reviews/2007/Nokia_Siemens.htm|title=Reviews – 2007 – Nokia Siemens Networks|year=2007|work=Identityworks|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
  +
  +
As of March 2009, Nokia Siemens Networks serves more than 600 operator customers in more than 150 countries, with over 1.5 billion people connected through its networks.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/NR/rdonlyres/B905B5DD-63F3-4D39-8CF3-B78AC915462E/0/_Factsheet_March_09_final.pdf|title=Facts about Nokia Siemens Networks|month=March|year=2009|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Siemens Networks|accessdate=2009-04-07}}</ref>
  +
  +
=====Navteq=====
  +
{{Main|Navteq}}
  +
Navteq is a [[Chicago, Illinois]]-based provider of digital map data for automotive navigation systems, mobile navigation devices, Internet-based mapping applications, and government and business solutions.<ref name="Structure"/> Navteq was acquired by Nokia on October 1, 2007.<ref name="Navteq"/> Navteq’s map data is part of the [[Nokia Maps]] online service where users can download maps, use voice-guided navigation and other context-aware web services.<ref name="Structure"/> Nokia Maps is part of the [[Ovi (Nokia)|Ovi]] brand of Nokia's Internet based online services.
  +
  +
====Corporate governance====
  +
The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Group Executive Board (left),<ref name="Group Executive Board">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4126335|title=Group Executive Board|month=April|year=2007|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> under the direction of the Board of Directors (right).<ref name="Board of Directors">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4126350|title=Board of Directors|month=April|year=2007|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> The Chairman and the rest of the Group Executive Board members are appointed by the Board of Directors. Only the Chairman of the Group Executive Board can belong to both, the Board of Directors and the Group Executive Board. The Board of Directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/About_Nokia/Sidebars_new_concept/Board_charters/audit_charter.pdf|title=Audit Committee Charter at Nokia|year=2007|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> the Personnel Committee<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/About_Nokia/Sidebars_new_concept/Board_charters/personnel_charter_2007.pdf|title=Personnel Committee Charter at Nokia|year=2007|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/About_Nokia/Sidebars_new_concept/Board_charters/CG_Charter_2008_Final_20080123.pdf|title=Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee Charter at Nokia|year=2008|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/link?cid=EDITORIAL_4207|title=Committees of the Board|month=May|year=2007|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
  +
  +
The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lmr.fi/publications/companies_act_290906.pdf|title=New Finnish Companies Act designed to increase Finland’s competitiveness|last=Virkkunen|first=Johannes|date=2006-09-29|format=PDF|work=LMR Attorneys Ltd. (Luostarinen Mettälä Räikkönen)|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Nokia's Articles of Association<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/About_Nokia/Company/Corporate_Governance/Articles_of_Association/Nokia_Articles_of_Association_10052007.pdf|title=Articles of Association|date=2007-05-10|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> and Corporate Governance Guidelines,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/About_Nokia/Sidebars_new_concept/Board_charters/corporate_governance_guideline_sep06.pdf|title=Corporate Governance Guidelines at Nokia|year=2006|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> and related Board of Directors adopted charters.
  +
  +
<center>
  +
{|style="border-spacing:12px"
  +
| style="width:50%;border:none;vertical-align:top" align="center"|
  +
{|class="wikitable" width="100%" style="margin:0px 0px"
  +
!Group Executive Board <ref name="Group Executive Board"/>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} [[Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo]] (Chairman), b. 1953<br/><small>President, CEO and Group Executive Board Chairman of Nokia Corporation since June 1, 2006<br/>Member of the Nokia Board of Directors since May 3, 2007<br/>With Nokia 1980–1981, rejoined 1982, Group Executive Board member since 1990</small><br/>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} [[Esko Aho]], b. 1954<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Corporate Relations and Responsibility<br/>Joined Nokia November 1, 2008, Group Executive Board member since 2009.<br/>Former [[Prime Minister of Finland]] (1991–1995).</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} Timo Ihamuotila, b. 1966<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer<br/>With Nokia 1993–1996, rejoined 1999, Group Executive Board member since 2007</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|USA|size=19px}} [[Mary T. McDowell]], b. 1964<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Chief Development Officer<br/>Joined Nokia 2004, Group Executive Board member since 2004</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Norway|size=19px}} Hallstein Mørk, b. 1953<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Human Resources<br/>Joined Nokia 1999, Group Executive Board member since 2004</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} Dr. Tero Ojanperä, b. 1966<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Services<br/>Joined Nokia 1990, Group Executive Board member since 2005</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} [[Niklas Savander]], b. 1962<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Services<br/>Joined Nokia 1997, Group Executive Board member since 2006</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|USA|size=19px}} Richard A. Simonson, b. 1958<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Mobile Phones, Devices<br/>Joined Nokia 2001, Group Executive Board member since 2004</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Venezuela|size=19px}} Alberto Torres, b. 1965<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Solutions<br/>Joined Nokia 2004, Group Executive Board member since October 1, 2009</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} Anssi Vanjoki, b. 1956<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Markets<br/>Joined Nokia 1991, Group Executive Board member since 1998</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} Dr. Kai Öistämö, b. 1964<br/><small>Executive Vice President, Devices<br/>Joined Nokia 1991, Group Executive Board member since 2005</small>
  +
|}
  +
|style="width:50%;border:none;vertical-align:top" align="center"|
  +
{| class="wikitable" width="100%" style="margin:0px 0px"
  +
!Board of Directors <ref name="Board of Directors"/>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} [[Jorma Ollila]] (Chairman), b. 1950<br/><small>Board member since 1995, Chairman of the Board of Directors since 1999<br/>Chairman of the Board of Directors of [[Royal Dutch Shell]] PLC</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|USA|size=19px}} [[Marjorie Scardino|Dame Marjorie Scardino]] (Vice Chairman), b. 1947<br/><small>Board member since 2001<br/>Chairman of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee, Member of the Personnel Committee<br/>Chief Executive Officer and member of the Board of Directors of [[Pearson PLC]]</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} Georg Ehrnrooth, b. 1940<br/><small>Board member since 2000<br/>Chairman of the Audit Committee, Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|India|size=19px}} [[Lalita D. Gupte]], b. 1948<br/><small>Board member since 2007, Member of the Audit Committee<br/>Non-executive Chairman of the [[ICICI Bank|ICICI Venture Funds Management Co Ltd.]]</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} [[Bengt R. Holmström|Dr. Bengt Holmström]], b. 1949<br/><small>Board member since 1999<br/>[[Paul Samuelson|Paul A. Samuelson]] Professor of Economics at [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]],<br/>joint appointment at the [[MIT Sloan School of Management]]</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Germany|size=19px}} [[Henning Kagermann|Dr. Henning Kagermann]], b. 1947<br/><small>Board member since 2007, Member of the Personnel Committee<br/>CEO and Chairman of the Executive Board of [[SAP AG]]</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} [[Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo]], b. 1953<br/><small>Board member since 2007<br/>President and CEO of Nokia Corporation</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Sweden|size=19px}} Per Karlsson, b. 1955<br/><small>Board member since 2002, Independent Corporate Advisor<br/>Chairman of the Personnel Committee, Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|France|size=19px}} Isabel Marey-Semper, b. 1967<br/><small>Board member since 2009, Member of the Audit Committee<br/>Chief Financial Officer, EVP in charge of strategy of [[PSA Peugeot Citroën]]</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} [[Risto Siilasmaa]], b. 1966<br/><small>Board member since 2008, Member of the Audit Committee<br/>Founder and Chairman of [[F-Secure]]</small>
  +
|-
  +
|align=left|{{flagicon|Finland|size=19px}} Keijo Suila, b. 1945<br/><small>Board member since 2006, Member of the Audit Committee</small>
  +
|}
  +
|}
  +
</center>
  +
{{clear}}
  +
  +
=====Former corporate officers=====
  +
{| style="margin: 0.75em auto 0.75em auto" cellspacing=2 cellpadding=0 border=0
  +
|-
  +
! colspan="2" align="center" | '''Chief Executive Officers'''
  +
|
  +
! colspan="4" align="center" | '''Chairmen of the Board of Directors''' <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kolumbus.fi/taglarsson/dokumentit/yritys.htm|title=Suomalaisten yritysten ylin johto|language=Finnish|accessdate=2009-03-20}}</ref>
  +
|-
  +
| [[Björn Westerlund]]
  +
| 1967–1977
  +
| {{pad|3em}}
  +
| [[Lauri Kivekäs|Lauri J. Kivekäs]]
  +
| 1967–1977{{pad|1.25em}}
  +
| [[Simo Vuorilehto]]
  +
| 1988–1990
  +
|-
  +
| [[Kari Kairamo]]
  +
| 1977–1988
  +
|
  +
| [[Björn Westerlund]]{{pad|0.25em}}
  +
| 1977–1979
  +
| [[Mika Tiivola]]
  +
| 1990–1992
  +
|-
  +
| [[Simo Vuorilehto]]
  +
| 1988–1992
  +
|
  +
| [[Mika Tiivola]]
  +
| 1979–1986
  +
| [[Casimir Ehrnrooth]]{{pad|0.25em}}
  +
| 1992–1999
  +
|-
  +
| [[Jorma Ollila]]
  +
| 1992–2006
  +
|
  +
| [[Kari Kairamo]]
  +
| 1986–1988
  +
| [[Jorma Ollila]]
  +
| 1999–
  +
|-
  +
| [[Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo]]{{pad|0.25em}}
  +
| 2006–
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|}
  +
  +
  +
  +
===Stock===
  +
Nokia, a [[Public limited company|public limited liability company]], is the oldest company listed under the same name on the [[Helsinki Stock Exchange]] (since 1915).<ref name="Towards Telecommunications"/> Nokia’s shares are also listed on the [[Frankfurt Stock Exchange]] (since 1988) and [[New York Stock Exchange]] (since 1994).<ref name="FAQ"/><ref name="Towards Telecommunications"/>
  +
  +
===Corporate culture===
  +
[[File:Nokian pääkonttori Keilaniemessä.jpg|thumb|275px|The [[Nokia head office|Nokia House]], Nokia's head office in [[Keilaniemi]], [[Espoo]], Finland.]]
  +
  +
Nokia's official [[Organizational culture|corporate culture]] manifesto, ''The Nokia Way'', emphasises the speed and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, [[Entrepreneurial network|networked organization]], although the corporation's size necessarily imposes a certain amount of [[bureaucracy]].<ref name="Nokia Way">{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4126303|title=Nokia Way and values|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
  +
  +
The official business language of Nokia is [[English language|English]]. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company spoken communication and e-mail.
  +
  +
Until May 2007, the ''Nokia Values'' were [[Customer satisfaction|Customer Satisfaction]], [[Respect]], [[Goal (management)|Achievement]], and Renewal. In May 2007, Nokia redefined its values after initiating a series of discussions worldwide as to what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human.<ref name="Nokia Way"/>
  +
  +
==Online services==
  +
====.mobi and the Mobile Web====
  +
Nokia was the first proponent of a [[Top Level Domain]] (TLD) specifically for the [[Mobile Web]] and, as a result, was instrumental in the launch of the [[.mobi]] domain name extension in September 2006 as an official backer.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://mtld.mobi/company/about/investors|title=dotMobi Investors|publisher=dotMobi|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://research.nokia.com/files/Haumont-dotMobi.pdf|title=dotMobi, a Key Enabler for the Mobile Internet|last=Haumont|first=Serge|coauthors=Siren, Ritva|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|work=Nokia Research Center|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> Since then, Nokia has launched the largest mobile portal, [http://nokia.mobi Nokia.mobi], which receives over 100 million visits a month.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.adservice.nokia.com/faq.jsp#12|title=Nokia Ad Business|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> It followed that with the launch of a mobile [http://www.adservice.nokia.com/ Ad Service] to cater to the growing demand for mobile advertisement.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.com.com/2100-1039_3-6164800.html|title=Nokia introduces mobile ad services|last=Reardon|first=Marguerite|date=2007-03-06|work=CNET News.com|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
  +
  +
====Ovi====
  +
{{Main|Ovi (Nokia)}}
  +
  +
[[File:Nokia-Ovi-logo.png|thumb|175px|Nokia [[Ovi (Nokia)|Ovi]] logo.]]
  +
[[Ovi (Nokia)|Ovi]], announced on August 29, 2007, is the name for Nokia's "umbrella concept" Internet services.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4136001?newsid=1149749|title=Meet Ovi, the door to Nokia's Internet services|date=2007-08-29|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-04-07}}</ref> Centered on Ovi.com, it is marketed as a "personal dashboard" where users can share photos with friends, download music, maps and games directly to their phones and access third-party services like Yahoo's [[Flickr]] photo site. It has some significance in that Nokia is moving deeper into the world of Internet services, where head-on competition with [[Microsoft]], [[Google]] and [[Apple Inc.|Apple]] is inevitable.<ref name="nytimes">{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/idg/IDG_002570DE00740E18002573A70046F2EF.html?ref=technology|title=Nokia Lays Plan for More Internet Services|last=Niccolai|first=James|date=2007-12-04|work=IDG News Service|publisher=New York Times|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref>
  +
  +
The services offered through Ovi include the Ovi Store (Nokia's application store), the Nokia Music Store, [[Nokia Maps]], Ovi Mail, the [[N-Gage 2.0|N-Gage]] mobile gaming platform available for several [[S60 platform|S60]] [[smartphone]]s, Ovi Share, Ovi Files, and Contacts and Calendar.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/NOKIA_COM_1/Press/Materials/White_Papers/pdf_files/backgrounders2008/Backgrounder_Ovi_by_Nokia.pdf|title=Ovi by Nokia|format=PDF|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-04-07}}</ref> The Ovi Store, the Ovi application store was launched in May 2009.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/press/press-releases/showpressrelease?newsid=1317441|title=Ovi Store opens for business|date=2009-05-26|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-06-12}}</ref> Prior to opening the Ovi Store, Nokia integrated its software Download! store, the stripped-down [[MOSH]] repository and the widget service [[WidSets]] into it.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUSTRE52H6AI20090318?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0|title=Nokia to shutter its "Mosh" success story|last=Virki|first=Tarmo|date=2009-03-18|work=Reuters|accessdate=2009-07-14}}</ref>
  +
  +
====My Nokia====
  +
Nokia offers a free personalised service to its subscribers called My Nokia (located at my.nokia.com).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/A4515032|title=Nokia – My Nokia|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-14}}</ref> Registered My Nokia users can avail free services as follows:
  +
  +
* Tips & tricks alerts through web, e-mail and also mobile text message.
  +
* My Nokia Backup: A free online backup service for mobile contacts, calendar logs and also various other files. This service needs [[General Packet Radio Service|GPRS]] connection.
  +
* Numerous [[ringtone]]s, [[Mobile wallpaper|wallpapers]], [[screensaver]]s, games and other things can be downloaded free of cost.
  +
  +
====Comes With Music====
  +
On December 4, 2007, Nokia unveiled their plans for the "Nokia Comes With Music" initiative, a program that would partner with [[Universal Music Group|Universal Music Group International]], [[Sony BMG]], Warner Music Group, and EMI as well as hundreds of Independent labels and music aggregators to bundle 12, 18, or 24 months worth of unlimited free music downloads with the purchase of a Nokia Comes With Music edition phone. Following the termination of the year of free downloads, tracks can be kept without having to renew the subscription. Downloads are both PC and mobile-based.<ref name="Nokia World 2007"/>
  +
  +
====Nokia Messaging====
  +
On August 13, 2008, Nokia launched a beta release of "Nokia Email service", a new push [[e-mail]] service, since graduated as part of Nokia Messaging.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://betalabs.nokia.com/blog/2008/12/17/nokia-email-service-graduates-as-part-of-nokia-messaging/|title=Nokia Email service graduates as part of Nokia Messaging|last=Fields|first=Davis|date=2008-12-17|publisher=Nokia Corporation|work=Nokia Beta Labs|accessdate=2009-03-16}}</ref>
  +
  +
Nokia Messaging operates as a centralised, hosted service that acts as a proxy between the Nokia Messaging client and the user's e-mail server. It does not allow for a direct connection between the phone and the e-mail server, and is therefore required to send e-mail credentials to Nokia's servers.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://email.nokia.com/account/faq.action?change_locale=en|title=Nokia Messaging: FAQ|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-06-12}}</ref> [[IMAP]] is used as the protocol to transfer emails between the client and the server.
  +
  +
==Controversy==
  +
===NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran===
  +
[[File:Nokia Connecting people.jpg|thumb|275px|A cartoon about Nokia's provision of intercept capability to Iran and people who were arrested in Iran by [[Islamic Republic of Iran|IRI]] regime using intercept capabilities]]
  +
In 2008, [[Nokia Siemens Networks]], a joint venture between Nokia and [[Siemens|Siemens AG]], reportedly provided [[Iran]]'s monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens to an unprecedented degree.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8112550.stm|title=Hi-tech helps Iranian monitoring|last=Cellan-Jones|first=Rory|date=2009-06-22|work=BBC News|accessdate=2009-07-14}}</ref> The technology reportedly allowed it to use [[deep packet inspection]] to read and even change the content of everything from "e-mails and Internet phone calls to images and messages on social-networking sites such as [[Facebook]] and [[Twitter]]". The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes," expert insiders told ''[[The Wall Street Journal]]''. During the post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, and experts suspected this was due to the use of the interception technology.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124562668777335653.html#mod|title=Iran's Web Spying Aided By Western Technology|last=Rhoads|first=Christopher|coauthors=Chao, Loretta|date=2009-06-22|work=The Wall Street Journal|publisher=Dow Jones & Company, Inc.|pages=A1|accessdate=2009-07-14}}</ref>
  +
  +
The joint venture company, Nokia Siemens Networks, asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a 'lawful intercept capability' "solely for monitoring of local voice calls". "Nokia Siemens Networks has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship or Internet filtering capability to Iran," it said.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/global/Press/Press+releases/news-archive/Provision+of+Lawful+Intercept+capability+in+Iran.htm|title=Provision of Lawful Intercept capability in Iran|date=2009-06-22|publisher=Nokia Siemens Networks|accessdate=2009-07-14}}</ref>
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  +
In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a [[boycott]] of their products and services in [[Iran]]. The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted at those companies deemed to be collaborating with the Islamic regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning [[SMS]] messaging.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jul/14/nokia-boycott-iran-election-protests|title=Iranian consumers boycott Nokia for 'collaboration'|last=Kamali Dehghan|first=Saeed|date=2009-07-14|work=The Guardian|publisher=Guardian News and Media Limited|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref>
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===Lex Nokia===
  +
In 2009, Nokia heavily supported the passing of a law in [[Finland]] that allows companies to monitor their employees’ electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/03/06/finland_nokia_snooping/|title='Lex Nokia' company snoop law passes in Finland|last=Ozimek|first=John|date=2009-03-06|work=The Register|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> Contrary to rumors, Nokia denied that the company would have considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic [[surveillance]] were not changed.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.cellular-news.com/story/35783.php|title=Nokia Denies Threat to Leave Finland|date=2009-02-01|work=cellular-news|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> The Finnish media dubbed the name ''Lex Nokia'' for this law, named after the Finnish copyright law (the so-called ''[[Lex Karpela]]'') a few years back.
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===Nokia-Apple patent dispute===
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On October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against [[Apple Inc.]] in the [[United States District Court for the District of Delaware|U.S. District Court of Delaware]] citing Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer.<ref name="Nokia-Apple">{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSLDE60H05R20100118?type=marketsNews|title=SCENARIOS-What lies ahead in Nokia vs Apple legal battle|last=Virki|first=Tarmo|date=2010-01-18|work=Reuters|accessdate=2010-01-25}}</ref> Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple’s General Counsel, Bruce Sewell went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in an ugly spat between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the [[United States International Trade Commission|U.S. International Trade Commission]] (ITC), alleging Apple of infringing its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players, and computers."<ref>{{cite news|url=http://pda-phone-reviews.in/latest-news/nokias-new-patent-suit-against-apple/|title=The war of the Smartphones: Nokia’s new patent suit against Apple|date=2010-01-06|work=Snartphone Reviews|accessdate=2010-01-25}}</ref> Nokia went on to ask the court to bar all U.S. imports of the Apple products including the iPhone, Mac and the iPod. Not one to be pushed behind, Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010, the details of which are yet to be confirmed.<ref name="Nokia-Apple"/>
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==Environmental record==
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Electronic products such as cell phones impact the environment both during production and after their useful life when they are discarded and turned into [[electronic waste]]. According to environmental organization [[Greenpeace]], Nokia has a good track record in limiting the amount of [[Toxicity|toxic]] [[Chemical substance|chemicals]] in its products, supporting [[recycling]], and reducing impact on [[climate change]], compared to other market leaders in the electronics industry. In the 14th Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics, Nokia stays in first place with a total score of 7.3/10.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.greenpeace.org/international/campaigns/toxics/electronics/how-the-companies-line-up|title=How the companies line up: Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics, 14th Edition|date=2010-01-07|publisher=Greenpeace International|accessdate=2009-01-13}}</ref><ref>{{cite press release|title=Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics, 13th Edition|publisher=Greenpeace International|date=2010-01-07|format=PDF|url=http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/guide-to-greener-electronics-14-edition.pdf|accessdate=2010-01-13}}</ref>
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In version 13 of the Guide, Nokia scored maximum points for its voluntary take-back program, which spans 84 countries with almost 5,000 collection points for [[End-of-life (product)|end-of-life]] mobile phones.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/environment/our-responsibility/environmental-report-2008/take-back-and-recycling|title=Recycling – Take-back and recycling|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> It also scored top marks for the information it provides on what to do with discarded products.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/environment/we-recycle/where-and-how-to-recycle|title=Where and how to recycle|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> However, the recycling rate of Nokia phones was only 3–5% in 2008, according to a global consumer survey released by Nokia.<ref name="Recycling">{{cite press release|url=http://www.nokia.com/press/press-releases/showpressrelease?newsid=1234291|title=Global consumer survey reveals that majority of old mobile phones are lying in drawers at home and not being recycled|date=2008-07-08|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> The majority of old mobile phones are simply lying in drawers at home and very few old devices, about 4%, are being thrown into landfill and not recycled.<ref name="Recycling"/>
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Nokia scored very well on toxic chemical issues; it launched new models free of [[Polyvinyl chloride|PVC]] at the end of 2005, first products without components containing [[Brominated flame retardant|BFRs]] from January 2007, and aims to have all new models free of all [[Bromine#Compounds|brominated]] and [[Chlorine#Compounds|chlorinated compounds]] and [[antimony trioxide]] from the beginning of 2010.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/environment/our-responsibility/substance-and-material-management|title=Managing our materials and substances|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> Nokia scored maximum points for committing to reduce absolute [[Carbon dioxide|{{co2}}]] emissions by a minimum of 10% in 2009 and 18% in 2010 from a baseline year of 2006.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/environment/our-responsibility/environmental-strategy/energy-saving-targets|title=Energy saving targets|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> Top marks were given for product [[Efficient energy use|energy efficiency]] as all but one of its mobile phone [[Battery charger|chargers]] exceed the [[United States Environmental Protection Agency|EPA]]’s [[Energy Star]] requirements by 30–90%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/environment/we-energise/nokia-and-energy-efficiency|title=How Nokia contributes to energy efficiency|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> Since 2001, Nokia has provided eco declarations of all its products.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/environment/we-create/devices-and-accessories/eco-declarations|title=Eco declarations|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref>
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Nokia is currently actively researching the use of recycled [[plastic]]s in their products, which are currently used only in packaging.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nokia.com/environment/we-create/materials-and-substances|title=Materials and substances|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-07-27}}</ref> In an effort to further reduce their [[environmental impact]] in the future, Nokia released a new phone concept, Remade, in February 2008.<ref name="Tech Goes Greener">{{cite news|url=http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,144482-c,recycling/article.html|title=Tech Goes Greener|last=Rubio|first=Jenalyn|date=2008-04-12|work=Computerworld Philippines|publisher=PC World|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> The phone has been constructed of solely recyclable materials.<ref name="Tech Goes Greener"/> The outer part of the phone is made from recycled materials such as aluminum cans, plastic bottles, and used car tires.<ref name="Nokia Remade">{{cite web|url=http://www.mobiletor.com/2008/04/09/nokia-remade-concept-phone-goes-green/|title=Nokia Remade Concept Phone goes Green|date=2008-04-09|publisher=Mobiletor|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref> The screen is constructed of recycled glass, and the hinges have been created from rubber tires. The interior of the phone is entirely constructed with refurbished phone parts, and there is a feature that encourages energy saving habits by reducing the backlight to the ideal level, which then allows the battery to last longer without frequent charges.
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==Research cooperation with universities==
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Nokia is actively exploring and engaging in [[open innovation]] through selective research collaborations with major universities and institutions by sharing resources and leveraging ideas. Current collaborations include:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://research.nokia.com/openinnovation|title=Open Innovation – Nokia Research Center|publisher=Nokia Corporation|accessdate=2009-04-01}}</ref>
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* [[Aalto University School of Science and Technology]], Finland
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* [[École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne]], Switzerland
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* [[ETH Zurich]], Switzerland
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* [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]], United States
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* [[Stanford University]], United States
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* [[Tampere University of Technology]], Finland
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* [[Tsinghua University]], China
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* [[University of California, Berkeley]], United States
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* [[University of Cambridge]], United Kingdom
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* [[University of Southern California]], United States
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==See also==
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{{Companies portal}}
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;Lists
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* [[List of Nokia products]]
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* [[List of acquisitions by Nokia]]
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;General
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* [[Symbian Foundation|Symbian]] – An open source operating system for mobile devices.
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* [[Gnokii]] − A suite of programs for communicating with mobile phones.
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* [[Maemo]] − Software and development platform and an operating system.
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* [[MeeGo]] − Merger of [[Maemo]] and [[Moblin]] projects
  +
* [[Nokia Beta Labs]] − Nokia beta applications.
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* Nokia Ovi Suite – Allows user to sync content with his Nokia device, send and receive text messages, take backup from device, transfer map files into device and update device software
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* [[Nokia PC Suite]] − A software package.
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* [[Nokia Software Updater]] − Mobile device firmware updater.
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* [[Forum Nokia]] − Developer community and support program.
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* [[Nokia head office]] − Nokia's headquarters.
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* [[Nokia, Finland]] − A Finnish town.
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* [[Nokian Tyres]] − A Finnish manufacturer of tires split from Nokia Corporation in 1988.
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* [[Nokian Footwear]] − A Finnish manufacturer of boots split from Nokia Corporation in 1990.
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==External links==
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* [http://www.nokia.com/ Official Nokia portal] <span style="font-size: 0.95em; color:#555;">(with complete list of regional websites)</span>
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* [http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/41/41820.html Nokia Corporation Company Profile] at [[Yahoo!]]
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* [http://www.nokiasiemensnetworks.com Nokia Siemens Networks]
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* [http://www.forum.nokia.com Official Forum Nokia for developers]
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* [http://russia.forum.nokia.com Official Russian Forum Nokia]
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* [http://advertising.nokia.com Nokia Interactive Advertising]
 
[[Category:Nokia]]
 
[[Category:Nokia]]

Revision as of 16:44, 3 May 2012

Nokia Corporation (Template:Pron-en) (Template:OMX, Template:Nyse, Template:FWB) is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki.[1] Nokia is engaged in the manufacturing of mobile devices and in converging Internet and communications industries, with over 123,000 employees in 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of EUR 41 billion and operating profit of €1.2 billion as of 2009.[2] It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile telephones: its global device market share was about 39% in Q4 2009, up from 37% in Q4 2008 and 38% in Q3 2009, and its converged device market share was about 40% in Q4, up from 35% in Q3 2009.[2] Nokia produces mobile devices for every major market segment and protocol, including GSM, CDMA, and W-CDMA (UMTS). Nokia offers Internet services such as applications, games, music, maps, media and messaging through its Ovi platform. Nokia's subsidiary Nokia Siemens Networks produces telecommunications network equipment, solutions and services.[3] Nokia is also engaged in providing free digital map information and navigation services through its wholly-owned subsidiary Navteq.[4]

Nokia has sites for research and development, manufacture and sales in many countries throughout the world. As of December 2009, Nokia had R&D presence in 16 countries and employed 37,020 people in research and development, representing approximately 30% of the group's total workforce.[2] The Nokia Research Center, founded in 1986, is Nokia's industrial research unit consisting of about 500 researchers, engineers and scientists.[5][6] It has sites in seven countries: Finland, China, India, Kenya, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.[7] Besides its research centers, in 2001 Nokia founded (and owns) INdT – Nokia Institute of Technology, a R&D institute located in Brazil.[8] Nokia operates a total of 15 manufacturing facilities[9] located at Espoo, Oulu and Salo, Finland; Manaus, Brazil; Beijing, Dongguan and Suzhou, China; Farnborough, England; Komárom, Hungary; Chennai, India; Reynosa, Mexico; Jucu, Romania and Masan, South Korea.[10][11] Nokia's Design Department remains in Salo, Finland.

Nokia is a public limited liability company listed on the Helsinki, Frankfurt, and New York stock exchanges.[9] Nokia plays a very large role in the economy of Finland; it is by far the largest Finnish company, accounting for about a third of the market capitalization of the Helsinki Stock Exchange (OMX Helsinki) as of 2007, a unique situation for an industrialized country.[12] It is an important employer in Finland and several small companies have grown into large ones as its partners and subcontractors.[13] Nokia increased Finland's GDP by more than 1.5% in 1999 alone. In 2004 Nokia's share of the Finnish GDP was 3.5% and accounted for almost a quarter of Finland's exports in 2003.[14]

In recent years, Finns have consistently ranked Nokia as one of the best Finnish brands. In 2008, it was the 27th most respected brand among Finns, down from sixth place in 2007.[15] The Nokia brand, valued at $34.9 billion, is listed as the fifth most valuable global brand in the Interbrand/BusinessWeek Best Global Brands list of 2009 (first non-US company).[16][17] It is the number one brand in Asia (as of 2007)[18] and Europe (as of 2009),[19] the 42nd most admirable company worldwide in Fortune's World's Most Admired Companies list of 2009 (third in Network Communications, seventh non-US company),[20] and the world's 85th largest company as measured by revenue in Fortune Global 500 list of 2009, up from 88th the previous year.[21] As of 2009, AMR Research ranks Nokia's global supply chain number six in the world.[22]

History

Template:Double image

File:Nokia HQ.jpg

The Nokia House, Nokia's head office located by the Gulf of Finland in Keilaniemi, Espoo, was constructed between 1995 and 1997. It is the workplace of more than 1,000 Nokia employees.[23]

Pre-telecommunications era

The predecessors of the modern Nokia were the Nokia Company (Nokia Aktiebolag), Finnish Rubber Works Ltd (Suomen Gummitehdas Oy) and Finnish Cable Works Ltd (Suomen Kaapelitehdas Oy).[24]

Nokia's history starts in 1865 when mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a groundwood pulp mill on the banks of the Tammerkoski rapids in the town of Tampere, in southwestern Finland, and started manufacturing paper.[25] In 1868, Idestam built a second mill near the town of Nokia, fifteen kilometres (nine miles) west of Tampere by the Nokianvirta river, which had better resources for hydropower production.[26] In 1871, Idestam, with the help of his close friend statesman Leo Mechelin, renamed and transformed his firm into a share company, thereby founding the Nokia Company, the name it is still known by today.[26]

The name of the town, Nokia, originated from the river which flowed through the town. The river itself, Nokianvirta, was named after the archaic Finnish word originally meaning a small, dark-furred animal that lived on the banks of the Nokianvirta river. In modern Finnish, noki means soot and nokia is its inflected plural, although this form of the word is rarely if ever used. The old word, nois (pl. nokia) or nokinäätä ("soot marten"), meant sable.[27] After sable was hunted to extinction in Finland, the word was applied to any dark-furred animal of the genus Martes, such as the pine marten, which are found in the area to this day.[28]

Toward the end of the 19th century, Mechelin's wishes to expand into the electricity business were at first thwarted by Idestam's opposition. However, Idestam's retirement from the management of the company in 1896 allowed Mechelin to become the company's chairman (from 1898 until 1914) and sell most shareholders on his plans, thus realizing his vision.[26] In 1902, Nokia added electricity generation to its business activities.[25]

Industrial conglomerate

In 1898, Eduard Polón founded Finnish Rubber Works, manufacturer of galoshes and other rubber products, which later became Nokia's rubber business.[24] At the beginning of the 20th century, Finnish Rubber Works established its factories near the town of Nokia and began using Nokia as its product brand.[29] In 1912, Arvid Wickström founded Finnish Cable Works, producer of telephone, telegraph and electrical cables and the foundation of Nokia's cable and electronics businesses.[24] At the end of the 1910s, shortly after World War I, the Nokia Company was nearing bankruptcy.[30] To ensure the continuation of electricity supply from Nokia's generators, Finnish Rubber Works acquired the business of the insolvent company.[30] In 1922, Finnish Rubber Works acquired Finnish Cable Works.[31] In 1937, Verner Weckman, a sport wrestler and Finland's first Olympic Gold medalist, became President of Finnish Cable Works, after 16 years as its Technical Director.[32] After World War II, Finnish Cable Works supplied cables to the Soviet Union as part of Finland's war reparations. This gave the company a good foothold for later trade.[32]

The three companies, which had been jointly owned since 1922, were merged to form a new industrial conglomerate, Nokia Corporation in 1967 and paved the way for Nokia's future as a global corporation.[33] The new company was involved in many industries, producing at one time or another paper products, car and bicycle tires, footwear (including Wellington boots), communications cables, televisions and other consumer electronics, personal computers, electricity generation machinery, robotics, capacitors, military communications and equipment (such as the SANLA M/90 device and the M61 gas mask for the Finnish Army), plastics, aluminium and chemicals.[23] Each business unit had its own director who reported to the first Nokia Corporation President, Björn Westerlund. As the president of the Finnish Cable Works, he had been responsible for setting up the company’s first electronics department in 1960, sowing the seeds of Nokia’s future in telecommunications.[34]

Eventually, the company decided to leave consumer electronics behind in the 1990s and focused solely on the fastest growing segments in telecommunications.[35] Nokian Tyres, manufacturer of tyres split from Nokia Corporation to form its own company in 1988[36] and two years later Nokian Footwear, manufacturer of rubber boots, was founded.[29] During the rest of the 1990s, Nokia divested itself of all of its non-telecommunications businesses.[35]

Telecommunications era

The seeds of the current incarnation of Nokia were planted with the founding of the electronics section of the cable division in 1960 and the production of its first electronic device in 1962: a pulse analyzer designed for use in nuclear power plants.[34] In the 1967 fusion, that section was separated into its own division, and began manufacturing telecommunications equipment.

Networking equipment

In the 1970s, Nokia became more involved in the telecommunications industry by developing the Nokia DX 200, a digital switch for telephone exchanges. In 1982, a DX 200 switch became the world's first microprocessor controlled telephone exchange and the first fully digital exchange to be taken into service in Europe. The DX 200 became the workhorse of the network equipment division. Its modular and flexible architecture enabled it to be developed into various switching products.[37] In 1984, development of a version of the exchange for the Nordic Mobile Telephony network was started.[38]

For a while in the 1970s, Nokia's network equipment production was separated into Telefenno, a company jointly owned by the parent corporation and by a company owned by the Finnish state. In 1987, the state sold its shares to Nokia and in 1992 the name was changed to Nokia Telecommunications.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Nokia developed the Sanomalaitejärjestelmä ("Message device system"), a digital, portable and encrypted text-based communications device for the Finnish Defence Forces.[39] The current main unit used by the Defence Forces is the Sanomalaite M/90 (SANLA M/90).[40]

First mobile phones

File:Nokia 150 and nokia 1100.jpg

The Mobira Cityman 150, Nokia's NMT-900 mobile phone from 1989 (left), compared to the Nokia 1100 from 2003.[41] The Mobira Cityman line was launched in 1987.[42]

The technologies that preceded modern cellular mobile telephony systems were the various "0G" pre-cellular mobile radio telephony standards. Nokia had been producing commercial and some military mobile radio communications technology since the 1960s, although this part of the company was sold some time before the later company rationalization. Since 1964, Nokia had developed VHF radio simultaneously with Salora Oy. In 1966, Nokia and Salora started developing the ARP standard (which stands for Autoradiopuhelin, or car radio phone in English), a car-based mobile radio telephony system and the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. It went online in 1971 and offered 100% coverage in 1978.[43]

In 1979, the merger of Nokia and Salora resulted in the establishment of Mobira Oy. Mobira began developing mobile phones for the NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony) network standard, the first-generation, first fully-automatic cellular phone system that went online in 1981.[44] In 1982, Mobira introduced its first car phone, the Mobira Senator for NMT-450 networks.[44]

Nokia bought Salora Oy in 1984 and now owning 100% of the company, changed the company's telecommunications branch name to Nokia-Mobira Oy. The Mobira Talkman, launched in 1984, was one of the world's first transportable phones. In 1987, Nokia introduced one of the world's first handheld phones, the Mobira Cityman 900 for NMT-900 networks (which, compared to NMT-450, offered a better signal, yet a shorter roam). While the Mobira Senator of 1982 had weighed Template:Convert and the Talkman just under Template:Convert, the Mobira Cityman weighed only Template:Convert with the battery and had a price tag of 24,000 Finnish marks (approximately €4,560).[42] Despite the high price, the first phones were almost snatched from the sales assistants’ hands. Initially, the mobile phone was a "yuppie" product and a status symbol.[23]

Nokia's mobile phones got a big publicity boost in 1987, when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was pictured using a Mobira Cityman to make a call from Helsinki to his communications minister in Moscow. This led to the phone's nickname of the "Gorba".[42]

In 1988, Jorma Nieminen, resigning from the post of CEO of the mobile phone unit, along with two other employees from the unit, started a notable mobile phone company of their own, Benefon Oy (since renamed to GeoSentric).[45] One year later, Nokia-Mobira Oy became Nokia Mobile Phones.

Involvement in GSM

Nokia was one of the key developers of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications),[46] the second-generation mobile technology which could carry data as well as voice traffic. NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony), the world's first mobile telephony standard that enabled international roaming, provided valuable experience for Nokia for its close participation in developing GSM, which was adopted in 1987 as the new European standard for digital mobile technology.[47][48]

Nokia delivered its first GSM network to the Finnish operator Radiolinja in 1989.[49] The world's first commercial GSM call was made on July 1, 1991 in Helsinki, Finland over a Nokia-supplied network, by then Prime Minister of Finland Harri Holkeri, using a prototype Nokia GSM phone.[49] In 1992, the first GSM phone, the Nokia 1011, was launched.[49][50] The model number refers to its launch date, 10 November.[50] The Nokia 1011 did not yet employ Nokia's characteristic ringtone, the Nokia tune. It was introduced as a ringtone in 1994 with the Nokia 2100 series.[51]

GSM's high-quality voice calls, easy international roaming and support for new services like text messaging (SMS) laid the foundations for a worldwide boom in mobile phone use.[49] GSM came to dominate the world of mobile telephony in the 1990s, in mid-2008 accounting for about three billion mobile telephone subscribers in the world, with more than 700 mobile operators across 218 countries and territories. New connections are added at the rate of 15 per second, or 1.3 million per day.[52]

Personal computers and IT equipment

Template:See also

File:Nokia booklet 3g-10 (3949263497).jpg

The Nokia Booklet 3G mini laptop.

In the 1980s, Nokia's computer division Nokia Data produced a series of personal computers called MikroMikko.[53] MikroMikko was Nokia Data's attempt to enter the business computer market. The first model in the line, MikroMikko 1, was released on September 29, 1981,[54] around the same time as the first IBM PC. However, the personal computer division was sold to the British ICL (International Computers Limited) in 1991, which later became part of Fujitsu.[55] MikroMikko remained a trademark of ICL and later Fujitsu. Internationally the MikroMikko line was marketed by Fujitsu as the ErgoPro.

Fujitsu later transferred its personal computer operations to Fujitsu Siemens Computers, which shut down its only factory in Espoo, Finland (in the Kilo district, where computers had been produced since the 1960s) at the end of March 2000,[56][57] thus ending large-scale PC manufacturing in the country. Nokia was also known for producing very high quality CRT and early TFT LCD displays for PC and larger systems application. The Nokia Display Products' branded business was sold to ViewSonic in 2000.[58] In addition to personal computers and displays, Nokia used to manufacture DSL modems and digital set-top boxes.

Nokia re-entered the PC market in August 2009 with the introduction of the Nokia Booklet 3G mini laptop.[59]

Challenges of growth

In the 1980s, during the era of its CEO Kari Kairamo, Nokia expanded into new fields, mostly by acquisitions. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the corporation ran into serious financial problems, a major reason being its heavy losses by the television manufacturing division and businesses that were just too diverse.[60] These problems, and a suspected total burnout, probably contributed to Kairamo taking his own life in 1988. After Kairamo's death, Simo Vuorilehto became Nokia's Chairman and CEO. In 1990–1993, Finland underwent severe economic depression,[61] which also struck Nokia. Under Vuorilehto's management, Nokia was severely overhauled. The company responded by streamlining its telecommunications divisions, and by divesting itself of the television and PC divisions.[62]

Probably the most important strategic change in Nokia's history was made in 1992, however, when the new CEO Jorma Ollila made a crucial strategic decision to concentrate solely on telecommunications.[35] Thus, during the rest of the 1990s, the rubber, cable and consumer electronics divisions were gradually sold as Nokia continued to divest itself of all of its non-telecommunications businesses.[35]

As late as 1991, more than a quarter of Nokia's turnover still came from sales in Finland. However, after the strategic change of 1992, Nokia saw a huge increase in sales to North America, South America and Asia.[63] The exploding worldwide popularity of mobile telephones, beyond even Nokia's most optimistic predictions, caused a logistics crisis in the mid-1990s.[64] This prompted Nokia to overhaul its entire logistics operation.[65] By 1998, Nokia’s focus on telecommunications and its early investment in GSM technologies had made the company the world's largest mobile phone manufacturer.[63] Between 1996 and 2001, Nokia’s turnover increased almost fivefold from 6.5 billion euros to 31 billion euros.[63] Logistics continues to be one of Nokia's major advantages over its rivals, along with greater economies of scale.[66][67]

Recent history

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Milestones and releases

File:Nokia evolucion tamaño.jpg

Reduction in size of Nokia mobile phones.

File:All 9xxx.png

Evolution of the Nokia Communicator. Models 9000, 9110, 9210 and 9500 shown.

Nokia opened its Komárom, Hungary mobile phone factory on May 5, 2000.[68]

In March 2007, Nokia signed a memorandum with Cluj County Council, Romania to open a new plant near the city in Jucu commune.[11][69][70] Moving the production from the Bochum, Germany factory to a low wage country created an uproar in Germany.[71][72]

In May 2007, Nokia announced that its Nokia 1100 handset, launched in 2003,[41] with over 200 million units shipped, was the best-selling mobile phone of all time and the world's top-selling consumer electronics product.[73]

In November 2007, Nokia announced and released the Nokia N82, its first (and currently, only) Nseries phone with Xenon flash.

At the Nokia World conference in December 2007, Nokia announced their "Comes With Music" program: Nokia device buyers are to receive a year of complimentary access to music downloads.[74] The service became commercially available in the second half of 2008.

In April 2008, Nokia began finding new ways to connect people, asking the "audience" to use their creativity and their mobile devices to become Nokia’s production company – to take part in filming, acting, editing and producing a collaborative film. Nokia Productions was the first ever mobile filmmaking project directed by Spike Lee. This was a collaborative experience that existed across borders and perspectives, working off a common script. The film premiered in October 2008.[75]

In 2008, Nokia released the Nokia E71 which was marketed to directly compete with the other BlackBerry devices offering a full keyboard and cheaper prices.

Nokia announced in August 2009 that they will be selling a high-end Windows-based mini laptop called the Nokia Booklet 3G.[59]

On September 2, 2009, Nokia launched two new music and social networking phones, the X6 and X3.[76] The Nokia X6 features 32GB of on-board memory with a 3.2" finger touch interface and comes with a music playback time of 35 hours. The Nokia X3 is a first series 40 Ovi Store-enabled device. The X3 is a music device that comes with stereo speakers, built-in FM radio, and a 3.2 megapixel camera.

On September 10, 2009, Nokia unveiled a new handset 7705 Twist, a phone with a sports square shape that swivels open to reveal a full QWERTY keypad.[77] The new mobile, which will be available exclusively through Verizon Wireless, features a 3 megapixel camera, web browsing, voice commands and weighs around 3.44 ounces.

Reorganizations

In April 2003, the troubles of the networks equipment division caused the corporation to resort to similar streamlining practices on that side, including layoffs and organizational restructuring.[78] This diminished Nokia's public image in Finland,[79][80] and produced a number of court cases and an episode of a documentary television show critical of Nokia.[81]

On February 2006, Nokia and Sanyo announced a memorandum of understanding to create a joint venture addressing the CDMA handset business. But in June, they announced ending negotiations without agreement. Nokia also stated its decision to pull out of CDMA research and development, to continue CDMA business in selected markets.[82][83][84]

In June 2006, Jorma Ollila left his position as CEO to become the chairman of Royal Dutch Shell[85] and to give way for Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo.[86][87]

In May 2008, Nokia announced on their annual stockholder meeting that they want to shift to the Internet business as a whole. Nokia no longer wants to be seen as the telephone company. Google, Apple and Microsoft are not seen as natural competition for their new image but they are considered as major important players to deal with.[88]

In November 2008, Nokia announced it was ceasing mobile phone distribution in Japan.[89] Following early December, distribution of Nokia E71 is cancelled, both from NTT docomo and SoftBank Mobile. Nokia Japan retains global research & development programs, sourcing business, and an MVNO venture of Vertu luxury phones, using docomo's telecommunications network.

Acquisitions

Template:Mainlist

File:Nokia E55 01.jpg

The Nokia E55, a mobile phone in the business segment and part of the Nokia Eseries range.

On September 22, 2003, Nokia acquired Sega.com, a branch of Sega which became the major basis to develop the Nokia N-Gage device.[90]

On November 16, 2005, Nokia and Intellisync Corporation, a provider of data and PIM synchronization software, signed a definitive agreement for Nokia to acquire Intellisync.[91] Nokia completed the acquisition on February 10, 2006.[92]

On June 19, 2006, Nokia and Siemens AG announced the companies would merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world's largest network firms, Nokia Siemens Networks.[93] Each company has a 50% stake in the infrastructure company, and it is headquartered in Espoo, Finland. The companies predicted annual sales of €16 bn and cost savings of €1.5 bn a year by 2010. About 20,000 Nokia employees were transferred to this new company.

On August 8, 2006, Nokia and Loudeye Corp. announced that they had signed an agreement for Nokia to acquire online music distributor Loudeye Corporation for approximately US $60 million.[94] The company has been developing this into an online music service in the hope of using it to generate handset sales. The service, launched on August 29, 2007, is aimed to rival iTunes. Nokia completed the acquisition on October 16, 2006.[95]

In July 2007, Nokia acquired all assets of Twango, the comprehensive media sharing solution for organizing and sharing photos, videos and other personal media.[96][97]

In September 2007, Nokia announced its intention to acquire Enpocket, a supplier of mobile advertising technology and services.[98]

In October 2007, pending shareholder and regulatory approval, Nokia bought Navteq, a U.S.-based supplier of digital mapping data, for a price of $8.1 billion.[4][99] Nokia finalized the acquisition on July 10, 2008.[100]

In September, 2008, Nokia acquired OZ Communications, a privately held company with approximately 220 employees headquartered in Montreal, Canada.[101]

On July 24, 2009, Nokia announced that it will acquire certain assets of cellity, a privately owned mobile software company which employs 14 people in Hamburg, Germany.[102] The acquisition of cellity was completed on August 5, 2009.[103]

On September 11, 2009, Nokia announced the acquisition of "certain assets of Plum Ventures, Inc, a privately held company which employed approximately 10 people with main offices in Boston, Massachusetts. Plum will complement Nokia’s Social Location services".[104]

Corporate affairs

Corporate structure

Divisions

Since October 1, 2009, Nokia comprises three business groups: Devices, Services, Solutions and Markets.[105] The four units receive operational support from the Corporate Development Office, led by Mary T. McDowell, which is also responsible for exploring corporate strategic and future growth opportunities.[105]

On April 1, 2007, Nokia’s Networks business group was combined with Siemens’ carrier-related operations for fixed and mobile networks to form Nokia Siemens Networks, jointly owned by Nokia and Siemens and consolidated by Nokia.[106]

Devices
File:Nokia N900-1.jpg

The Nokia N900, a Maemo 5 Linux based mobile Internet device and touchscreen smartphone from Nokia's Nseries portfolio.

The Devices division is responsible for developing and managing Nokia's mobile device portfolio, including the sourcing of components, headed by Kai Öistämö.[105] The division consists of the previous mainline Mobile Phones division with the separate subdivisions Multimedia (Nseries devices) and Enterprise Solutions (Eseries devices) as well as formerly centralized core devices R&D – called Technology Platforms.

This division provides the general public with mobile voice and data products across a wide range of mobile devices, including high-volume, consumer oriented mobile phones and devices, and more expensive multimedia and enterprise-class devices. The devices are based on GSM/EDGE, 3G/W-CDMA and CDMA cellular technologies. Nokia's Nseries Multimedia Computers extensively uses Symbian OS.

In the first quarter of 2006 Nokia sold over 15 million MP3 capable mobile phones, which means that Nokia is not only the world's leading supplier of mobile phones and digital cameras (as most of Nokia's mobile telephones feature digital cameras, it is also believed that Nokia has recently overtaken Kodak in camera production making it the largest in the world), Nokia is now also the leading supplier of digital audio players (MP3 players), outpacing sales of devices such as the iPod from Apple. At the end of the year 2007, Nokia managed to sell almost 440 million mobile phones which accounted for 40% of all global mobile phones sales.[107]

Services

The Services division operates in five areas of consumer Internet services: music, maps, media, messaging and games.[105] The division consists of the previous enterprise and consumer driver services businesses previously hosted in Multimedia and Enterprise Solutions divisions, as well as a number of new acquisitions (Loudeye, Gate5, Enpocket, Intellisync, Avvenu and OZ Communications), headed by Niklas Savander.

The group works with companies outside the telecommunications industry to make advances in the technology and bring new applications and possibilities in areas such as online services, optics, music synchronization and streaming media.

Solutions

Solutions is responsible for Nokia's offering of solutions, where the mobile device, personalized services and content are integrated into a package for the consumer. The unit is led by Alberto Torres.

Markets

The Markets division, the successor organization to Nokia's Customer and Market Operations division, is responsible for the management of the supply chains, sales channels, brand and marketing functions of the company, headed by Anssi Vanjoki.[105]

Subsidiaries

File:Nokia 5800 XpressMusic Browser.jpg

The Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, a touchscreen smartphone and portable entertainment device which emphasizes music and multimedia playback.

Nokia has several subsidiaries, of which the two most significant as of 2009 are Nokia Siemens Networks and Navteq.[105] Other notable subsidiaries include, but are not limited to Vertu, a British-based manufacturer and retailer of luxury mobile phones; Qt Software, a Norwegian-based software company, and OZ Communications, a consumer e-mail and instant messaging provider.

Until 2008 Nokia was the major shareholder in Symbian Limited, a software development and licensing company that produced Symbian OS, a smartphone operating system used by Nokia and other manufacturers. In 2008 Nokia acquired Symbian Ltd and, along with a number of other companies, created the Symbian Foundation to distribute the Symbian platform royalty free and as open source.

Nokia Siemens Networks
Main article: Nokia Siemens Networks

Nokia Siemens Networks (previously Nokia Networks) provides wireless and wired network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms, as well as professional services to operators and service providers.[105] Nokia Siemens Networks focuses in GSM, EDGE, 3G/W-CDMA and WiMAX radio access networks; core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities; and services.

On June 19, 2006 Nokia and Siemens AG announced the companies are to merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world's largest network firms, called Nokia Siemens Networks.[93] The Nokia Siemens Networks brand identity was subsequently launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007.[108][109]

As of March 2009, Nokia Siemens Networks serves more than 600 operator customers in more than 150 countries, with over 1.5 billion people connected through its networks.[110]

Navteq
Main article: Navteq

Navteq is a Chicago, Illinois-based provider of digital map data for automotive navigation systems, mobile navigation devices, Internet-based mapping applications, and government and business solutions.[105] Navteq was acquired by Nokia on October 1, 2007.[4] Navteq’s map data is part of the Nokia Maps online service where users can download maps, use voice-guided navigation and other context-aware web services.[105] Nokia Maps is part of the Ovi brand of Nokia's Internet based online services.

Corporate governance

The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Group Executive Board (left),[111] under the direction of the Board of Directors (right).[112] The Chairman and the rest of the Group Executive Board members are appointed by the Board of Directors. Only the Chairman of the Group Executive Board can belong to both, the Board of Directors and the Group Executive Board. The Board of Directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee,[113] the Personnel Committee[114] and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee.[115][116]

The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act,[117] Nokia's Articles of Association[118] and Corporate Governance Guidelines,[119] and related Board of Directors adopted charters.

Group Executive Board [111]
Template:Flagicon Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo (Chairman), b. 1953
President, CEO and Group Executive Board Chairman of Nokia Corporation since June 1, 2006
Member of the Nokia Board of Directors since May 3, 2007
With Nokia 1980–1981, rejoined 1982, Group Executive Board member since 1990

Template:Flagicon Esko Aho, b. 1954
Executive Vice President, Corporate Relations and Responsibility
Joined Nokia November 1, 2008, Group Executive Board member since 2009.
Former Prime Minister of Finland (1991–1995).
Template:Flagicon Timo Ihamuotila, b. 1966
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
With Nokia 1993–1996, rejoined 1999, Group Executive Board member since 2007
Template:Flagicon Mary T. McDowell, b. 1964
Executive Vice President, Chief Development Officer
Joined Nokia 2004, Group Executive Board member since 2004
Template:Flagicon Hallstein Mørk, b. 1953
Executive Vice President, Human Resources
Joined Nokia 1999, Group Executive Board member since 2004
Template:Flagicon Dr. Tero Ojanperä, b. 1966
Executive Vice President, Services
Joined Nokia 1990, Group Executive Board member since 2005
Template:Flagicon Niklas Savander, b. 1962
Executive Vice President, Services
Joined Nokia 1997, Group Executive Board member since 2006
Template:Flagicon Richard A. Simonson, b. 1958
Executive Vice President, Mobile Phones, Devices
Joined Nokia 2001, Group Executive Board member since 2004
Template:Flagicon Alberto Torres, b. 1965
Executive Vice President, Solutions
Joined Nokia 2004, Group Executive Board member since October 1, 2009
Template:Flagicon Anssi Vanjoki, b. 1956
Executive Vice President, Markets
Joined Nokia 1991, Group Executive Board member since 1998
Template:Flagicon Dr. Kai Öistämö, b. 1964
Executive Vice President, Devices
Joined Nokia 1991, Group Executive Board member since 2005
Board of Directors [112]
Template:Flagicon Jorma Ollila (Chairman), b. 1950
Board member since 1995, Chairman of the Board of Directors since 1999
Chairman of the Board of Directors of Royal Dutch Shell PLC
Template:Flagicon Dame Marjorie Scardino (Vice Chairman), b. 1947
Board member since 2001
Chairman of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee, Member of the Personnel Committee
Chief Executive Officer and member of the Board of Directors of Pearson PLC
Template:Flagicon Georg Ehrnrooth, b. 1940
Board member since 2000
Chairman of the Audit Committee, Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Template:Flagicon Lalita D. Gupte, b. 1948
Board member since 2007, Member of the Audit Committee
Non-executive Chairman of the ICICI Venture Funds Management Co Ltd.
Template:Flagicon Dr. Bengt Holmström, b. 1949
Board member since 1999
Paul A. Samuelson Professor of Economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
joint appointment at the MIT Sloan School of Management
Template:Flagicon Dr. Henning Kagermann, b. 1947
Board member since 2007, Member of the Personnel Committee
CEO and Chairman of the Executive Board of SAP AG
Template:Flagicon Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo, b. 1953
Board member since 2007
President and CEO of Nokia Corporation
Template:Flagicon Per Karlsson, b. 1955
Board member since 2002, Independent Corporate Advisor
Chairman of the Personnel Committee, Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Template:Flagicon Isabel Marey-Semper, b. 1967
Board member since 2009, Member of the Audit Committee
Chief Financial Officer, EVP in charge of strategy of PSA Peugeot Citroën
Template:Flagicon Risto Siilasmaa, b. 1966
Board member since 2008, Member of the Audit Committee
Founder and Chairman of F-Secure
Template:Flagicon Keijo Suila, b. 1945
Board member since 2006, Member of the Audit Committee

Template:Clear

Former corporate officers
Chief Executive Officers Chairmen of the Board of Directors [120]
Björn Westerlund 1967–1977 Template:Pad Lauri J. Kivekäs 1967–1977Template:Pad Simo Vuorilehto 1988–1990
Kari Kairamo 1977–1988 Björn WesterlundTemplate:Pad 1977–1979 Mika Tiivola 1990–1992
Simo Vuorilehto 1988–1992 Mika Tiivola 1979–1986 Casimir EhrnroothTemplate:Pad 1992–1999
Jorma Ollila 1992–2006 Kari Kairamo 1986–1988 Jorma Ollila 1999–
Olli-Pekka KallasvuoTemplate:Pad 2006–


Stock

Nokia, a public limited liability company, is the oldest company listed under the same name on the Helsinki Stock Exchange (since 1915).[23] Nokia’s shares are also listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange (since 1988) and New York Stock Exchange (since 1994).[9][23]

Corporate culture

File:Nokian pääkonttori Keilaniemessä.jpg

The Nokia House, Nokia's head office in Keilaniemi, Espoo, Finland.

Nokia's official corporate culture manifesto, The Nokia Way, emphasises the speed and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, networked organization, although the corporation's size necessarily imposes a certain amount of bureaucracy.[121]

The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company spoken communication and e-mail.

Until May 2007, the Nokia Values were Customer Satisfaction, Respect, Achievement, and Renewal. In May 2007, Nokia redefined its values after initiating a series of discussions worldwide as to what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human.[121]

Online services

.mobi and the Mobile Web

Nokia was the first proponent of a Top Level Domain (TLD) specifically for the Mobile Web and, as a result, was instrumental in the launch of the .mobi domain name extension in September 2006 as an official backer.[122][123] Since then, Nokia has launched the largest mobile portal, Nokia.mobi, which receives over 100 million visits a month.[124] It followed that with the launch of a mobile Ad Service to cater to the growing demand for mobile advertisement.[125]

Ovi

Main article: Ovi (Nokia)
File:Nokia-Ovi-logo.png

Nokia Ovi logo.

Ovi, announced on August 29, 2007, is the name for Nokia's "umbrella concept" Internet services.[126] Centered on Ovi.com, it is marketed as a "personal dashboard" where users can share photos with friends, download music, maps and games directly to their phones and access third-party services like Yahoo's Flickr photo site. It has some significance in that Nokia is moving deeper into the world of Internet services, where head-on competition with Microsoft, Google and Apple is inevitable.[127]

The services offered through Ovi include the Ovi Store (Nokia's application store), the Nokia Music Store, Nokia Maps, Ovi Mail, the N-Gage mobile gaming platform available for several S60 smartphones, Ovi Share, Ovi Files, and Contacts and Calendar.[128] The Ovi Store, the Ovi application store was launched in May 2009.[129] Prior to opening the Ovi Store, Nokia integrated its software Download! store, the stripped-down MOSH repository and the widget service WidSets into it.[130]

My Nokia

Nokia offers a free personalised service to its subscribers called My Nokia (located at my.nokia.com).[131] Registered My Nokia users can avail free services as follows:

  • Tips & tricks alerts through web, e-mail and also mobile text message.
  • My Nokia Backup: A free online backup service for mobile contacts, calendar logs and also various other files. This service needs GPRS connection.
  • Numerous ringtones, wallpapers, screensavers, games and other things can be downloaded free of cost.

Comes With Music

On December 4, 2007, Nokia unveiled their plans for the "Nokia Comes With Music" initiative, a program that would partner with Universal Music Group International, Sony BMG, Warner Music Group, and EMI as well as hundreds of Independent labels and music aggregators to bundle 12, 18, or 24 months worth of unlimited free music downloads with the purchase of a Nokia Comes With Music edition phone. Following the termination of the year of free downloads, tracks can be kept without having to renew the subscription. Downloads are both PC and mobile-based.[74]

Nokia Messaging

On August 13, 2008, Nokia launched a beta release of "Nokia Email service", a new push e-mail service, since graduated as part of Nokia Messaging.[132]

Nokia Messaging operates as a centralised, hosted service that acts as a proxy between the Nokia Messaging client and the user's e-mail server. It does not allow for a direct connection between the phone and the e-mail server, and is therefore required to send e-mail credentials to Nokia's servers.[133] IMAP is used as the protocol to transfer emails between the client and the server.

Controversy

NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran

File:Nokia Connecting people.jpg

A cartoon about Nokia's provision of intercept capability to Iran and people who were arrested in Iran by IRI regime using intercept capabilities

In 2008, Nokia Siemens Networks, a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens AG, reportedly provided Iran's monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens to an unprecedented degree.[134] The technology reportedly allowed it to use deep packet inspection to read and even change the content of everything from "e-mails and Internet phone calls to images and messages on social-networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter". The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes," expert insiders told The Wall Street Journal. During the post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, and experts suspected this was due to the use of the interception technology.[135]

The joint venture company, Nokia Siemens Networks, asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a 'lawful intercept capability' "solely for monitoring of local voice calls". "Nokia Siemens Networks has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship or Internet filtering capability to Iran," it said.[136]

In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a boycott of their products and services in Iran. The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted at those companies deemed to be collaborating with the Islamic regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning SMS messaging.[137]

Lex Nokia

In 2009, Nokia heavily supported the passing of a law in Finland that allows companies to monitor their employees’ electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking.[138] Contrary to rumors, Nokia denied that the company would have considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic surveillance were not changed.[139] The Finnish media dubbed the name Lex Nokia for this law, named after the Finnish copyright law (the so-called Lex Karpela) a few years back.

Nokia-Apple patent dispute

On October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple Inc. in the U.S. District Court of Delaware citing Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer.[140] Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple’s General Counsel, Bruce Sewell went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in an ugly spat between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), alleging Apple of infringing its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players, and computers."[141] Nokia went on to ask the court to bar all U.S. imports of the Apple products including the iPhone, Mac and the iPod. Not one to be pushed behind, Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010, the details of which are yet to be confirmed.[140]

Environmental record

Electronic products such as cell phones impact the environment both during production and after their useful life when they are discarded and turned into electronic waste. According to environmental organization Greenpeace, Nokia has a good track record in limiting the amount of toxic chemicals in its products, supporting recycling, and reducing impact on climate change, compared to other market leaders in the electronics industry. In the 14th Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics, Nokia stays in first place with a total score of 7.3/10.[142][143]

In version 13 of the Guide, Nokia scored maximum points for its voluntary take-back program, which spans 84 countries with almost 5,000 collection points for end-of-life mobile phones.[144] It also scored top marks for the information it provides on what to do with discarded products.[145] However, the recycling rate of Nokia phones was only 3–5% in 2008, according to a global consumer survey released by Nokia.[146] The majority of old mobile phones are simply lying in drawers at home and very few old devices, about 4%, are being thrown into landfill and not recycled.[146]

Nokia scored very well on toxic chemical issues; it launched new models free of PVC at the end of 2005, first products without components containing BFRs from January 2007, and aims to have all new models free of all brominated and chlorinated compounds and antimony trioxide from the beginning of 2010.[147] Nokia scored maximum points for committing to reduce absolute [[Carbon dioxide|Template:Co2]] emissions by a minimum of 10% in 2009 and 18% in 2010 from a baseline year of 2006.[148] Top marks were given for product energy efficiency as all but one of its mobile phone chargers exceed the EPA’s Energy Star requirements by 30–90%.[149] Since 2001, Nokia has provided eco declarations of all its products.[150]

Nokia is currently actively researching the use of recycled plastics in their products, which are currently used only in packaging.[151] In an effort to further reduce their environmental impact in the future, Nokia released a new phone concept, Remade, in February 2008.[152] The phone has been constructed of solely recyclable materials.[152] The outer part of the phone is made from recycled materials such as aluminum cans, plastic bottles, and used car tires.[153] The screen is constructed of recycled glass, and the hinges have been created from rubber tires. The interior of the phone is entirely constructed with refurbished phone parts, and there is a feature that encourages energy saving habits by reducing the backlight to the ideal level, which then allows the battery to last longer without frequent charges.

Research cooperation with universities

Nokia is actively exploring and engaging in open innovation through selective research collaborations with major universities and institutions by sharing resources and leveraging ideas. Current collaborations include:[154]

  • Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Finland
  • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland
  • ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States
  • Stanford University, United States
  • Tampere University of Technology, Finland
  • Tsinghua University, China
  • University of California, Berkeley, United States
  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • University of Southern California, United States

See also

Template:Companies portal

Lists
General
  • Symbian – An open source operating system for mobile devices.
  • Gnokii − A suite of programs for communicating with mobile phones.
  • Maemo − Software and development platform and an operating system.
  • MeeGo − Merger of Maemo and Moblin projects
  • Nokia Beta Labs − Nokia beta applications.
  • Nokia Ovi Suite – Allows user to sync content with his Nokia device, send and receive text messages, take backup from device, transfer map files into device and update device software
  • Nokia PC Suite − A software package.
  • Nokia Software Updater − Mobile device firmware updater.
  • Forum Nokia − Developer community and support program.
  • Nokia head office − Nokia's headquarters.
  • Nokia, Finland − A Finnish town.
  • Nokian Tyres − A Finnish manufacturer of tires split from Nokia Corporation in 1988.
  • Nokian Footwear − A Finnish manufacturer of boots split from Nokia Corporation in 1990.


External links

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